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7 Am. J. Mediation 55 (2013-2014)
NFL Concussion Protocol: A System Redesign

handle is hein.journals/amjm7 and id is 59 raw text is: NFL CONCUSSION PROTOCOL:
Ben Pallone
I.     Introduction to the Conflict
The issue of the dangers of concussions in professional
sports has reached a critical mass within our society. Over the
years numerous scientific studies have indicated the dangers
associated with this type of injury. One of these dangers is a
condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE
is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain brought on by
repetitive brain trauma'. As a result of this repetitive trauma, build-
up of an abnormal protein known as tau occurs within the brain
causing legions that eventually lead to brain cell death2. These
changes in the brain can begin to manifest months or even years
after the last concussion has been sustained, and the condition can
only be diagnosed postmortem 3. As a result, this condition has
become commonplace among professional athletes, but is just now
beginning to receive the widespread attention that such a serious
affliction requires.
Symptoms of CTE were first observed among boxers in
1928, and have since then been identified in athletes from other
major sports, such as hockey, wrestling, soccer, and most notably,
football4. However, it was not until 2002 that CTE was formally
diagnosed in a former National Football League (NFL) player,
and not until 2009 that the condition was officially acknowledged
by the NFL itself6. Prior to 2009, the NFL repeatedly denied and
' http://www.bu.edu/cte/about/frequently-asked-questions/
2 http://www.bu.edu/news/2012/05/1 7/boston-university-veterans-affairs-
3 http://www.sportslegacy.org/research/cte/
4 Michael Saulle and Brian D. Greenwald, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy:
A Review, Volume 2012, Article ID 816069 (2012)
5 http://www.gq.com/sports/profiles/200909/nfl-players-brain-dementia-study-
6 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/21/sports/football/21concussions.html


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