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44 Am. Bus. L.J. 331 (2007)
The Role of Multinational Enterprises in Responding to Violent Conflict: A Conceptual Model and Framework for Research

handle is hein.journals/ambuslj44 and id is 343 raw text is: 


American Business Law Journal
Volume 44, Issue 2, 331-358, Summer 2007



The Role of Multinational Enterprises

in Responding to Violent Conflict:

A Conceptual Model and Framework

for Research

Jennifer Oetzel,* Kathleen A. Getz,** and Stephen Ladek***


I. INTRODUCTION

Situations of violent conflict are among the most difficult for people and so-
cieties. Social change directed at reducing or ending violent conflict is thus
among the most significant activities in which societal actors can engage. We
define violent conflict as organized physical force, resulting from grievances
between two or more parties and leading to injury or death to persons or
damage or destruction to property. The potential contribution of business in
responding to violent conflict has largely been overlooked in the manage-
ment and international business research. This is surprising, considering the
threat violence poses to firm success. For example, in March 2003, Chevron's
Nigeria unit shut down all its operations in the Western Niger Delta in re-
sponse to ongoing violence in the area, which threatened the safety of Chev-
ron employees. The operations had produced 440,000 barrels of oil and 285
million cubic feet of natural gas per day. Although operations were fully
restarted in February 2004, the eleven-month closure was costly.1


*Assistant Professor of International Business, Kogod School of Business, American University.
'Associate Professor of Business Citizenship, Kogod School of Business, American University.
*'Principal, International Solutions Group, Amman, Jordan.
'See Chevron, Chevron Nigeria Limited Shuts in all Western Niger Delta Production (2003), http://
www.chevron.com/news/press/2003/2003%2D03%2d23.asp (last visited Dec. 1, 2005). See
also Chevron, Chevron Texaco Begins its Return to Oifields Vacated Last Year (2004), http://www.
chevron.com/news/press/2004/2004%2D02%2DII.asp (last visited Dec. 1, 2005); Energy
Information Administration, World Oil Market and Oil Price Chronologies (2005), http://www.
eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/chron.html (last visited Dec. 1, 2005).
© 2007, Copyright the Authors
Journal compilation © 2007, Academy of Legal Studies in Business
                                 331

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