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32 Alaska Just. F. 1 (2015-2016)

handle is hein.journals/aljufor32 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Spring 2015                               UNIVERSITY of ALASIKA ANCHORAGE                                     Vol. 32, No. 1

       Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Association

                         with Alcohol Abuse by Alaska Adults

Marny Rivera and Patrick Sidmore
   Alaska has a costly substance abuse
problem. The prevalence of alcohol con-
sumption in Alaska is high (Figure 1), part
of a problem costing Alaskans an estimated
$1.2 billion annually in lost productivity and
expenditures associated with traffic crashes,
criminal justice and protective services,
health care, and public assistance and social
services, according to a 2012 report by the
McDowell Group. In Alaska there are also
elevated rates of the following Adverse
Childhood Experiences (ACEs) (Table
1)-childhood abuse (verbal/emotional,
physical, and sexual) and other forms of
household dysfunction (mental illness or
substance abuse in the home, separation or
divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and
having an incarcerated family member)-all
of which impact individuals, communi-
ties, and the economy. One indication of
the long-term effect of ACEs can be seen
in a recent nationwide study by the Perry-

Category and ACE type

1. Verbal/emotional abuse
       2. Physical abuse
       3. sexual abuse

man Group which
estimated that each     Figure 1. Alcohol Use in Alaska and the U.S., 2001-2013
first-time incident      100%
of child abuse in
2014 would cost           80%
$1.8 million dol-
lars over a lifetime.              Current drinkers
The personal and          60%
economic impacts
are substantial.
   In this article we
examine the rela-                                                   Alaska
tio n sh ip b etw e e n   20%                  Binge drinkers       . . . . .
abuse and house-                Heavy drinkers                              Alaska
hold dysfunction in        0%      .
childhood and the            2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
increased likelihood                                  Year
of problem alcohol             Source of data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
drinking by Alaska                Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BFRSS)
adults. The behav-
ioral health of Alaskans could be improved tablishing an integrated prevention system.
by addressing the associationbetween ACEs
and health-risk drinking behaviors, and es-               Please see A CEs, page 16

Table 1. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Types and Questions
Question asked in Alaska

Did a parent or adult in your home ever swear at you, insult you, or PUt you down?  
Did a parent or adult in your home ever hit, beat, kick, or physically hurt you in anyway? (Do not include spanking)
Did anyone at least 5 years older than you, ran adult, ever t0uch YoU sexually?
Did anyone at least 5 years older than you, or an adult, try to make you touch them sexually?
Did anyone at least 5 years older thanyu Or an adult, force you to have Sex?

            4. Physical neglect [question not asked in Alaska survey]
            5. Emotional neglect [question not asked in Alaska survey]
Household dysfunction

   6. Mental illness in the home
 7. Substance abuse in the home

8. Witnessing domestic violence
9. Incarcerated family member
      10. Separation or divorce

Did you live with anyone who was depressed, mentally ill, or suicidal?
Did you live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic?.
Did you live with anyone who used illegal street drugs or who abused prescription medications?
Did your parents or adults in your home ever slap, hit, kick, punch, or beat each other up?
Did you live with anyone who served time or was sentenced to serve time in prison, jail, or other correctional facility?
Were your parents separated or divorced?
               Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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