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18 Alaska Just. F. 1 (2001-2002)

handle is hein.journals/aljufor18 and id is 1 raw text is: ALASKA JUSTICE FORUM
A Publication of the                                                 Alaska Justice
Justice Center                                                   Statistical Analysis Unit
Spring 2001              UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA ANCHORAGE              Vol. 18, No.1
Hate Crimes: An Overview of Numbers and Statutes

The current discussion of hate or bias
crimes and hate crime legislation in Alaska
seems to require an examination of the
figures on these types of incidents both here
and in the country as a whole, as well as a
review of the status of existing laws, both
federal and state.
In reality, for Alaska it is impossible
accurately to assemble anything approaching
comprehensive or solid figures on criminal
incidents exhibiting racial, ethnic, religious
or other types of bias. While the FBI
assembles data on bias incidents from law
enforcement agencies throughout the
country, in Alaska only the Anchorage Police
Department participates in this reporting
program. The figures from APD seem to be
the only systematically assembled numbers
in the state. These show that, for the most
part, relatively few incidents showing bias
are being reported in the Anchorage area.
Assembly of Data
The FBI is the primary source for national
figures on hate or bias offenses. Since 1990
the agency has assembled figures from law
enforcement agencies throughout the country
and released a summary compilation under
the title Hate Crime Statistics. Tables 1-3
show data from the 1999 edition of this
publication.
Participation in this FBI reporting
program is voluntary for police departments.
Nationwide, over 12,000 law enforcement
agencies, representing approximately 85 per
cent of the total population, submitted
summary reports for 1999. However, many
participating agencies submitted reports
HIGHLIGHTS
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
 An examination of prison populations in
2000 (page 2).
 A look at incidents reflecting bias in
Anchorage, 1999 (page 3).

which claimed the occurrence of no incidents
showing a bias motivation. In fact, only 15
per cent of the participating agencies
reported the occurrence of any hate crime

incidents. (Among those law enforcement
agencies reporting no incidents were police
Please see Hate Crimes, page 5

Table 1. Hate Crime Incidents in the U.S. by Bias Motivation, 1999
Known

Bias motivation
Single-bias incidents
Race
Anti-white
Anti-black
Anti-American Indian/Alaska Native
Anti-Asian/Pacific Islander
Anti-multiracial group
Religion
Anti-Jewish
Anti-Catholic
Anti-Protestant
Anti-Islamic
Anti-other religious group
Anti-multi-religious group
Anti-atheism/agnosticism/etc.

Sexual orientation
Anti-male homosexual
Anti-female homosexual
Anti-homosexual
Anti-heterosexual
Anti-bisexual
Ethnicity/national origin
Anti-Hispanic
Anti-other ethnicity/national origin
Disability

Anti-physical disability
Anti-mental disability

Multiple-bias incidents3
Total incidents 7,81

Incidents Offenses

Victims' offenders2

7,871    9,291    9,792    7,265

4,295
781
2,958
47
298
211
1,411
1,109
36
48
32
151
31
4

1,317
915
187
178
14
23

5,240
970
3,542
49
363
316
1,532
1,198
41
49
34
170
35
5
1,487
1,025
216
205
16
25

829     1,011
466       576
363      435

19
10
9

21
11
10

5,485
996
3,679
50
379
381
1,686
1,289
41
50
34
221
46
5
1,558
1,070
231
216
16
25
1,040
588
452
23
13
10

4,362
1,011
2,861
40
288
162
602
429
18
19
14
98
21
3
1,376
1,043
150
154
15
14
904
562
342
21
9
12

5       10        10        6
76     9,301    9,802    7,271

1 The term victim may refer to a person, business, institution, or society as a whole.
2 The term known offender does not imply that the identity of the suspect is known, but only that
an attribute of the suspect is identified which distinguishes him/her from an unknown offender.
3 A multiple-bias incident is any hate crime incident in which one or more of the offenses were
committed as a result of two or more bias motivations.
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Hate Crime Statistics, 1999

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