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35 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 377 (2018)
Moral Wrongfulness and Cartel Criminalization in East Asia

handle is hein.journals/ajicl35 and id is 415 raw text is: 






   MORAL WRONGFULNESS AND CARTEL CRIMINALIZATION IN
                              EAST  ASIA

                       Jingyuan Ma & Mel Marquis*

                          TABLE  OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION                        ......................................................378

II. LEGALISM AND THE CONCEPT OF LAW IN ANCIENT CHINA.....  ...........389
   A. The Concepts of Law and Penal Law in Ancient China...... ......391
   B. Fa Jia and Legalism      .....................................393
   C. Penalties..............................................396
   D. The Instrumental Use of Law.. ..............................399

III. MORAL AND PENAL LAW                    ............................................401
   A. The Confucianization of the Law............    ......................405
   B. Defining Moral Wrongfulness   ..............................406
   C. A Different Context for Moral Action..........  ....................407

IV. THE IMPACT OF CONFUCIANISM  AND LEGALISM  ON LEGAL  CULTURE  IN EAST
ASIA.........................       ................................. ......408
   A. China..................           ......................  ......409
   B. Japan...................          ......................  .....412
   C. Korea..................           ......................  ......415

V. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CRIMINALIZATION OF CARTELS IN EAST ASIA...........417
   A. The Criminalization of Cartels, or paucity thereof, in China, Japan, and Korea
   ............................................... 417
   B. Defining Moral Wrongfulness of Cartels ..............  .........426
   C. Moral Wrongfulness and Penal Law   .............................430
   D. Prospects for Criminal Enforcement in East Asia ........... ...........431

VI. CONCLUSION        ...........................................................433


        Abstract: The global trend toward formal criminalization of cartel
conduct is typically justified by reference to deterrence theory and the economic
incentives that influence behavior. Other factors have often been treated with
benign neglect. Some scholars have helpfully begun to highlight links between the
likely effectiveness of criminal sanctions for cartel practices on the one hand, and
on the other, a social norm that recognizes such behavior as deserving punishment
that goes beyond administrative sanctions and possible private remedies. Where
social acceptance of the need for criminal sanctions to fight cartels is absent or
underdeveloped, there may be a wide gap between the formal adoption ofa criminal

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