59 A.F. L. Rev. 1 (2007)
Religion in the Military: Navigating the Channel between the Religion Clauses

handle is hein.journals/airfor59 and id is 3 raw text is: RELIGION IN THE MILITARY:
NAVIGATING THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE RELIGION
CLAUSES
MAJOR (RET.) DAVID E. FIZKEE
CAPTAIN LINELL A. LETENDRE
I.  IN TROD  U CTION   ................................................................................. 3
II. OVERVIEW OF THE ESTABLISHMENT, FREE EXERCISE, AND FREE
SPEECH   CLAUSES    ..........................................................................  7
A. The Establishment Clause ....................................................... 7
B. The Free Exercise Clause ..................................................... 13
1. Laws Aimed at Religion ................................................. 14
2. Religion-Neutral Laws ................................................... 16
a.  Employment Division v. Smith ............................... 17
b. The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993
and  Challenges .......................................................  20
3. Free Exercise Clause Summary ..................................... 24
C. Tension between the Establishment Clause and the Free
Exercise  Clause  ..................................................................   25
D. The Free Speech Clause, Religious Speech, and Interplay
with the Establishment Clause ............................................ 27
III. RELIGIOUS SPEECH IN THE MILITARY ......................................... 31
A. Religious Speech and the Free Speech Clause ...................... 32
B. Religious Speech and the Establishment Clause ................... 36
IV. PRAYER IN THE MILITARY .......................................................... 43
A. Prayer at Solemn Military Events ........................................ 44
1. Deeply Embedded in History Exception ........................ 44
2. Remaining Establishment Clause Analysis ................... 46
B. Prayer at Routine Military Events ........................................ 50
C. Prayer or Invocation Guidance if Allowable ........................ 52
V. RELIGIOUS DISPLAYS IN THE MILITARY .......................................... 52
A .  Com m  on  Areas  ....................................................................  53
B .  Private  A reas  .........................................................................  56
C. Personal Governmental Work Areas ..................................... 57
Major (U.S. Army, retired) David E. Fitzkee (B.A. and MS., University of Pennsylvania
(1975); J.D., Dickinson School of Law (1983); LL.M, The Judge Advocate General's School,
Charlottesville, Virginia (1988)) is an associate professor of law at the U.S. Air Force
Academy. He is a member of the Colorado Bar. Captain Linell A. Letendre (B.S.,
Astronautical Engineering, U.S. Air Force Academy, Distinguished Graduate (1996); I.D.,
University of Washington with highest honors (2001)) is an assistant professor of law at the
US. Air Force Academy. She is a member of the Washington Bar.

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