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74 U. Pa. L. Rev. 155 (1925-1926)
Economic Sanctions and International Security

handle is hein.journals/pnlr74 and id is 175 raw text is: ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL
Article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations pro-
vides for the severance of commercial, financial, and personal
relations between a covenant-breaking State and the other mem-
ber States.' The proposed application of economic sanctions
against a recalcitrant State represents the first step under inter-
national agreement whereby the employment of economic pres-
sure is to become a means of maintaining the peace of the world.
The control of this powerful weapon rests finally with the Coun-
cil of the League and its application calls for the rendering of
mutual assistance by the member States in accordance with
such plans as the Council may deem feasible. Failure of a State
to observe its obligations under Articles 12 to 17, inclusive, of
the Covenant opens the way to a consideration by the Council of
the issues involved. Should the offending power continue in an
unyielding mood the League will ultimately set in motion the ma-
chinery for the application of economic pressure.2
*The security treaties recently signed at Locarno provide for Germany's
entrance into the League of Nations and for German membership on the League
Council. The signatory powers have accepted the view that the obligations
which Germany shall assume under Article 16 of the Covenant are subject to the
interpretation embodied in Article ii of the Geneva Protocol. It is considered
that Germany as a member of the Council will have every opportunity of pro-
tecting her special position if the problem of applying economic sanctions ever
arose. The attitude of Great Britain or other leading powers towards the
Protocol in no way affects their acceptance of the amendments or reservations
attaching to Article 16. The machinery of applying economic measures, as out-
lined in this study, has been set up by the League itself. The Protocol and the
security treaties simply incorporate principles which the League is prepared to
put into effect.
'The original Article i6 also provided that the Council recommend to the
several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or air force the
members of the League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be
used to protect the covenants of the League. The member States also agree
to co-operate in applying financial and economic measures and to allow passage
for the forces of any members thus co-operating in protecting the League
covenants. Any member violating any such covenants may be declared no
longer a member of the League.
2By Articles 12, 13 and 15 of the League Covenant the members agree to
submit their disputes to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council. They agree
not to go to war within three months after an award by the arbitrators or a,
report by the Council has been made as well as to carry out the award in good
faith. They commit themselves not to go to war with any member complying
with such award or decision. The Council shall, in case further steps are

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