About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

1 1 (April 26, 2023)

handle is hein.crs/govellf0001 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Congressional Research Servh
informning thw iegisIathve debate sinco 1914

Updated April 26, 2023

United Nations Issues: U.S. Funding of U.N. Peacekeeping

The United States is the single largest financial contributor
to United Nations (U.N.) peacekeeping activities. Congress
authorizes and appropriates U.S. contributions, and it has an
ongoing interest in ensuring such funding is used as
efficiently and effectively as possible. The United States, as
a permanent member  of the U.N. Security Council, plays a
key role in establishing, renewing, and funding U.N.
peacekeeping operations. For 2023, the United Nations
assessed the U.S. share of U.N. peacekeeping at 26.94%;
however, since 1994 Congress has capped the U.S. payment
at 25% due to concerns that U.S. assessments are too high.
Congress appropriated $1.48 billion to most U.N.
peacekeeping activities for FY2023 (up to the 25% cap).
Due to the gap between the U.N. assessment and the 25%
cap, the United States has accumulated $1.1 billion in
arrears since FY2017. President Biden's FY2024 budget
request would fully fund the U.S. peacekeeping assessment
and pay down some  U.S. arrears.
The United Nations currently operates 12 U.N.
peacekeeping missions worldwide, with more than 75,000
military, police, and civilian personnel from over 100
countries. The Security Council adopts a resolution to
establish each operation and specify how it will be funded.
Historically, the Council has authorized the U.N. General
Assembly  to create a separate assessed account for each
operation to be supported by member states' contributions.
In recent years, due to concerns about budget shortfalls, the
General Assembly has pooled peacekeeping funding to
allow for increased financial flexibility.
The General Assembly adopts the scale of assessments for
U.N. member  contributions to peacekeeping operations
every three years. The peacekeeping scale is based on a
modification of the U.N. regular budget scale, with the five
permanent council members assessed at a higher level than
for the regular budget. For example, the United States is
assessed at 22% of the regular budget; however, its current
peacekeeping assessment is 26.94%. Other top contributors
include China, Japan, and Germany (Table 1). In December
2021, the General Assembly adopted the assessment rates
for the 2022-2024 time period.

  Table 1. Top Financial Contributors by Assessment
Country          Percentage    Country     Percentage
I. United States    26.94      6. France       5.28
2. China             18.68     7. Italy        3.18
3. Japan             8.03      8. Canada       2.62
4. Germany           6.11      9. S. Korea     2.57
5. U.K.              5.35      10. Russia      2.28
Source: U.N. document, A/76/296/Rev. I/Add. I, December 28, 2021.
Some  U.N. members, often referred to as troop contributing
countries (TCCs), voluntarily provide military and police
personnel for each mission. Peacekeepers are paid by their
own  governments, which are reimbursed by the United

Nations at a standard rate determined by the General
Assembly  (about $1,428 per soldier per month).

The peacekeeping financial year runs from July 1 to June
30; the Assembly usually adopts resolutions to finance
missions in late June. The approved budget for the 2022-
2023 peacekeeping fiscal year is $6.45 billion. Four
missions comprise about 70% of the overall budget:
MINUSMA (Mali) at   $1.24 billion; UNMISS (South
Sudan) at $1.11 billion; MINUSCA (Central African
Republic) at $1.07 billion; and MONUSCO (Democratic
Republic of the Congo), at $1.03 billion.

US. Policy
Background   and Context: The Enacted  U.S. Cap. In the
early 1990s, the U.S. peacekeeping assessment was over
30%, which  Congress found too high. In 1994, Members
capped U.S. funding at 25% of the peacekeeping budget for
all fiscal years after 1995 (Section 404 of P.L. 103-236).
Over the years, the gap between the actual U.S. assessment
and the cap led to funding shortfalls. The State Department
and Congress often covered these by raising the cap for
limited periods and/or by allowing the application of U.N.
peacekeeping credits (excess U.N. funds from previous
missions) to fund outstanding U.S. balances. For many
years, these actions allowed the United States to pay its
peacekeeping dues in full. However, since FY2017
Congress has declined to raise the cap, and in mid-2017, the
Trump  Administration allowed for the application of
peacekeeping credits up to, but not beyond, the 25% cap-
which has led to the accumulation of $1.1 billion in U.S.
arrears since FY2017. In early 2021, President Biden
reversed the policy and allowed for the applications of
peacekeeping credits beyond the cap.
Key  Accounts and Recent Funding  Levels. U.S. assessed
contributions to U.N. peacekeeping are provided mostly
through the Contributions for International Peacekeeping
Activities (CIPA) account, which is funded through annual
State Department-Foreign Operations (SFOPS)
Appropriations Acts. CIPA funds the majority of U.N.
peacekeeping operations, as well as the U.N. criminal
tribunals and mission monitoring activities.
In addition, the Contributions to International
Organizations (CIO) account funds two observer missions,
UNTSO   (Israel and the Palestinians) and UNMOGIP (India
and Pakistan), through U.S. funding to the U.N. regular
budget. The Peacekeeping Operations account, which funds
most non-U.N. peacekeeping and regional stability
operations, provides assessed funding to the U.N. Support
Office in Somalia, a U.N.-authorized logistics mission that
supports the African Union Mission in Somalia.
The FY2023  SFOPS  Act (Division K of the Consolidated
Appropriations Act, 2023; P.L. 117-328) provides $1.48
billion to the CIPA account (up to the enacted 25% cap)

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing thousands of academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.

Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline.

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most