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Updated April 20, 2022
United Nations Issues: U.S. Funding of U.N. Peacekeeping

The United States is the single largest financial contributor
to United Nations (U.N.) peacekeeping activities. Congress
authorizes and appropriates U.S. contributions, and it has an
ongoing interest in ensuring such funding is used as
efficiently and effectively as possible. The United States, as
a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, plays a
key role in establishing, renewing, and funding U.N.
peacekeeping operations. For 2022, the United Nations
assessed the U.S. share of U.N. peacekeeping at 26.94%;
however, since 1994 Congress has capped the U.S. payment
at 25% due to concerns that U.S. assessments are too high.
Congress appropriated $1.5 billion to most U.N.
peacekeeping activities for FY2022 (up to the 25% cap).
Most recently, President Biden's FY2023 budget proposes
full U.S. funding for U.N. peacekeeping, including the
payment of U.S. peacekeeping arrears.
U.N. Peacekeeping Funding
The United Nations currently operates 12 U.N.
peacekeeping missions worldwide, with more than 80,000
military, police, and civilian personnel from over 100
countries. The Security Council adopts a resolution to
establish each operation and specifies how it will be funded.
Historically, the Council has authorized the U.N. General
Assembly to create a separate assessed account for each
operation to be supported by member states contributions.
In recent years, due to concerns about budget shortfalls, the
General Assembly has pooled peacekeeping funding to
allow for increased financial flexibility.
The General Assembly adopts the scale of assessments for
U.N. member contributions to peacekeeping operations
every three years. The peacekeeping scale is based on a
modification of the U.N. regular budget scale, with the five
permanent council members assessed at a higher level than
for the regular budget. For example, the United States is
assessed at 22% of the regular budget; however, its current
peacekeeping assessment is 26.94%. Other top contributors
include China, Japan, and Germany (Table 1). In December
2021, the General Assembly adopted the assessment rates
for the 2022-2024 time period.
Table 1. Top Financial Contributors to U.N.
Peacekeeping, 2022, by Assessment Rate
Country         Percentage   Country    Percentage
I. United States   26.94     6. France     5.28
2. China            18.68    7. Italy       3.18
3. Japan            8.03     8. Canada      2.62
4. Germany          6.11     9. S. Korea    2.57
5. United Kingdom   5.35     10. Russia     2.28
Rest of membership, total percentage: 81.04
Source: U.N. document, A/76/296/Rev. I/Add. I, December 28, 2021.
Note: Italics represent permanent Security Council members.
U.N. members voluntarily provide military and police
personnel for each U.N. mission. Peacekeepers are paid by

their own governments, which are reimbursed by the United
Nations at a standard rate determined by the Assembly
(about $1,428 per soldier per month).
The U.N. peacekeeping financial year runs from July 1 to
June 30; the Assembly usually adopts resolutions to finance
peacekeeping missions in late June. The total approved
budget for the 2021-2022 peacekeeping year is $6.38
billion. Operations with the highest annual budgets are
MINUSMA (Mali), at $1.17 billion; UNMISS (South
Sudan), at $1.11 billion; and MONUSCO (Democratic
Republic of the Congo), at $1.04 billion.
U.S. Policy
Background and Context: The Enacted U.S. Cap
In the early 1990s, the U.S. peacekeeping assessment was
over 30%, which Congress found too high. In 1994,
Members capped U.S. funding at 25% of the peacekeeping
budget for all fiscal years after 1995 (P.L. 103-236). Over
the years, the gap between the actual U.S. assessment and
the cap led to funding shortfalls. The State Department and
Congress often covered these by raising the cap for limited
periods and/or by allowing the application of U.N.
peacekeeping credits (excess U.N. funds from previous
missions) to fund outstanding U.S. balances. For many
years, these actions allowed the United States to pay its
peacekeeping dues in full. However, since FY2017
Congress has declined to raise the cap, and in mid-2017, the
Trump Administration allowed for the application of
peacekeeping credits up to, but not beyond, the 25% cap-
which led to the accumulation of over $900 million in U.S.
arrears from FY2017 to FY2020. In early 2021, President
Biden reversed the Trump Administration policy and
allowed for the applications of peacekeeping credits beyond
the cap.
Key Accounts and Recent Funding Levels
U.S. assessed contributions to U.N. peacekeeping
operations are provided primarily through the Contributions
for International Peacekeeping Activities (CIPA) account,
which is funded through annual State Department-Foreign
Operations (SFOPS) Appropriations Acts. CIPA funds 10
of the 12 U.N. peacekeeping operations, as well as the U.N.
criminal tribunals and mission monitoring activities (see
Figure 1).
In addition to CIPA, the Contributions to International
Organizations (CIO) account funds two observer missions,
UNTSO (Israel and the Palestinians) and UNMOGIP (India
and Pakistan), through U.S. contributions to the U.N.
regular budget. The Peacekeeping Operations (PKO)
account, which funds most non-U.N. peacekeeping and
regional stability operations, provides assessed
contributions to the U.N. Support Office in Somalia
(UNSOS), a U.N.-authorized logistics mission that supports
the African Union Mission in Somalia.

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