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57 Stan. L. Rev. 1475 (2004-2005)
The Class Action Counterreformation

handle is hein.journals/stflr57 and id is 1489 raw text is: THE CLASS ACTION
COUNTERREFORMATION
Elizabeth J. Cabraser*
INTRODUCTION: REFORM VERSUS COUNTERREFORMATION ............................... 1475
I. THE AMERICAN COURTS' CONTRASTING ATTITUDES TOWARD
CLASSIC CLASS ACTIONS ................................................................................ 1479
II. MASS WITHOUT CLASS: EXISTING JOINDER ALTERNATIVES UNDER THE
FEDERAL RULES.................................................................................................. 1485
A. Rule 20: Permissive Joinder ...................................................................... 1485
1. General standards for Rule 20 favor joinder ......................................... 1486
2. Courts have reached divergent conclusions on application of Rule
20's transaction  requirement ................................................................. 1487
B. Rule 22: Interpleader................................................................................. 1492
C. Rule 42: Consolidation/Severance for Common Questions Trials ............ 1493
III. CLASS NOUVEAU: EMERGING VARIATIONS ON THE CLASS ACTIONS
T H EM E  ................................................................................................................  14 99
A. Rule 23(c)(4)(A):  Issues Classes........................................................... 1499
B. Classwide Punitive Damages Determinations ........................................... 1507
C. The New and Implied Preference for Class Actions over Representative
Actions    in  Consum er  Cases .......................................................................... 1512
D. The Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA) ..................................................... 1514
E. The  Opt-In   Class....................................................................................  1517
CONCLUSION....................................................................................................... 1519
INTRODUCTION: REFORM VERSUS COUNTERREFORMATION
Class actions have been reformed to death. In Amchem Products Inc. v.
Windsorl and Ortiz v. Fibreboard Corp.,2 the Supreme Court transformed
* Partner at Lieff, Cabraser, Heimann & Bernstein, LLP (San Francisco, California).
The office represents plaintiffs in class actions and other aggregate proceedings in the
federal and state courts. I have represented clients in tort, consumer, and investment
litigation, and I lecture frequently on these and other complex litigation topics, whether
anyone is listening or not. I serve as one of the counsel of record for plaintiffs in the Exxon
Valdez, Simon II, and Diet Drugs litigation referred to in this Article. Many thanks to David
W. Marcus for his substantial contributions on the joinder alternatives discussion in Part II.
1. 521 U.S. 591 (1997).
2. 527 U.S. 815 (1999).

1475

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