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32 Stetson L. Rev. 61 (2002-2003)
Making Campuses Safer for Students: The Clery Act as a Symbolic Legal Reform

handle is hein.journals/stet32 and id is 73 raw text is: MAKING CAMPUSES SAFER FOR STUDENTS:
THE CLERY ACT AS A SYMBOLIC LEGAL
REFORM
Bonnie S. Fisher*
Jennifer L. Hartman-
Francis T. Cullen-
Michael G. Turner****
I. INTRODUCTION
Elected officials at all levels of government pass laws in re-
sponse to issues that rise to the top of their policy agenda. Laws
serve two functions: (1)symbolic and (2)substantive. The sym-
bolic function of law includes such goals as reaffirming cherished
values and showing that something is being done about a per-
ceived social problem. The Clery Act1 is one such law. It appeases
the interests of those who advocated for, or perhaps were inter-
ested in, its passage, regardless of its substantive impact. The
substantive function of law, on the other hand, involves introduc-
ing changes that have demonstrable utility - changes that essen-
tially help to alleviate or solve the problem the law addresses.
During    the  late   1970s   and   1980s, several movements
emerged independently to raise public awareness about crime on
* © 2002, Bonnie S. Fisher. All rights reserved. Professor in the Division of Criminal
Justice at the University of Cincinnati. B.A., Illinois State University, 1981; M.A., North-
western University, 1984; Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1988.
** © 2002, Jennifer L. Hartman. All rights reserved. Assistant Professor in the De-
partment of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. B.A.,
Loyola College, 1990; M.S., University of Baltimore, 1994; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati,
1999.
*** © 2002, Francis T. Cullen. All rights reserved. Distinguished Research Professor in
the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. B.A., Bridgewater State
College, 1972, magna cum laude; M.A., Columbia University, 1974; Ph.D., Columbia Uni-
versity, 1979.
**** © 2002, Michael G. Turner. All rights reserved. Assistant Professor in the De-
partment of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. B.S., Bowl-
ing Green State University, 1991; M.S., University of Cincinnati, 1994; Ph.D., University
of Cincinnati, 2000.
1. 20 U.S.C. § 1092(f) (2000).

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