4 San Diego Int'l L.J. 7 (2003)
International Law and the Pre-emptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida, and Iraq

handle is hein.journals/sdintl4 and id is 17 raw text is: International Law and the Pre-emptive
Use of Force: Afghanistan,
Al-Qaida, and Iraq
CHRISTOPHER GREENWOOD*
TABLE OF CONTENTS,
I.      INTRODUCTION ...............  ..........       .................................. 8
II.     THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF THE USE OF FORCE
IN  INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ......................................................................... 10
A .  Self-D efense  ................................................................................................ I  I
1. Self-Defense Against Threatened Attacks ....................................... 12
2. Self-Defense Against Threats from Terrorists ................................ 16
B.   Collective  Security  ................................................................................   18
1.  Collective Security and Pre-emptive Action .................................. 19
2.  Collective Security  and  Terrorism  ................................................   19
III.    THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM .............................. 21
IV .    IR A Q   ..................................................................................................................... 2 6
A.    The Security Council Resolutions on Iraq ........................................... 26
B.   The Legality of Military Action Against Iraq ....................................... 33
V .     C ONCLUSIONS  ................................................................................................... 36
*   CMG, QC; Professor of International Law, London School of Economics and
Political Science.  The author acknowledges with gratitude the assistance of Mr.
Jonathan Drakeford, LLM, in checking references. He also wishes to express particular
gratitude to the editorial team of the Journal in preparing this Article for the press and for
the patience with which they bore the last minute changes necessitated by events in Iraq.

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