18 Rutgers L.J. 217 (1986-1987)
Marcos Mania: The Crusade to Return Marcos' Billions to the Philippines through the Federal Courts

handle is hein.journals/rutlj18 and id is 227 raw text is: MARCOS MANIA: THE CRUSADE TO RETURN
On February 26, 1986, President Ferdinand E. Marcos of the
Philippines, following in the footsteps of other distinguished United States
allies,' was forced to flee his country after a civil and military uprising
ended his twenty-one year reign as dictator.'
While Marcos at first seemed to be but another deposed dictator,
destined to fade into history, there has emerged a seemingly unending
avalanche of information and evidence documenting how Ferdinand and
Imelda Marcos amassed a vast fortune at the expense of their country.3
The flagrant misuse of government funds by the Marcos regime is so well
documented that the succeeding government of Corazon Aquino is
wholeheartedly crusading to recover as much looted government property
as possible.4
1. Since 1979, three other United States allies have been removed from office by waves
of democracy. They are: General Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua (Washington Post, July
18, 1979, at 1, col. 2); the Shah of Iran (see generally Washington Post, Jan. 17, 1979, at 1,
col. 3, and Note, Islamic Republic of Iran v. Pahlavi: A Novel Application of Forum Non
Conveniens, 49 ALB. L. REV. 528 (1985)); and President Jean-Claude Duvalier of Haiti
(see generally Washington Post, Feb. 8, 1986, at 1, col. 3, and Dorfman, On the Trail of
Baby Doc, N.Y. MAGAZINE July 14, 1986, at 19).
2. See generally N.Y. Times, Feb. 27, 1986, at 1, col. 1; Washington Post, Feb. 27,
1986, at 1, col. 2. Marcos was the first exiled ally to accept an offer of sanctuary in the
United States (although ousted leader Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua had a temporary
stay in the United States). See Richburg, Marcos, Duvalier Cases Raise Asylum Question,
Washington Post, Feb. 26, 1986, at 14, col. 4.
3. Estimates of Marcos' holdings range from $6 billion to $10 billion evidenced by
papers left in his palace and those brought with him when he fled to the United States. This
is especially perplexing considering that Marcos' salary was only $46,700 a year. Burgess,
Tax Returns, Receipts Document Marcos'Spending, Investing, Washington Post, Feb. 25,
1986, at 4, col. 2.
The flow of information between the United States and the Philippines, in regard to
Marcos' financial holdings and transactions, has been aided by a 1976 Convention between
the United States and the Philippines for Double Taxation on Income. The convention
provides for the necessary authorities to exchange information to prevent fraud on either
party by individuals traveling between the two countries. The convention also pledges that
each country will assist the other in collection of due taxes. See Convention on Double
Taxation: Taxes on Income, Oct. I-Nov. 24, 1976, United States-Philippines, T.I.A.S. No.
10417; Russakoff, Filippinos Find Avalanche of Marcos Financial Data, Washington
Post, Mar. 12, 1986, at 1, col. 3; Richburg, Papers Show Wealth Hidden Worldwide,
Washington Post, Mar. 21, 1986, at 1, col. 1.
4. See Randal, Filippinos Energetically Seek Information on Hidden Wealth,

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