12 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 1 (2011)
The Erosion of Civil Rights: Exploring the Effects of the Patriot Act on Muslims in American Higher Education

handle is hein.journals/rrace12 and id is 3 raw text is: The Erosion of Civil Rights:
Exploring the Effects of the
Patriot Act on Muslims in
American Higher Education
By Shafiqa Ahmadit
Introduction
The USA PATRIOT Act (the Patriot Act) was drafted in
response to the horrific terrorist events of 9/11 and signed into law
by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.' While the
t Shafiqa Ahmadi, J.D. is an Assistant Professor of Clinical Education at the Rossier
School of Education at the University of Southern California. The author wishes to
thank Adrien Wing, Bessie Dutton Murray, Professor at the University of Iowa
College of Law; Kareem Crayton, Associate Professor of Law at the University of
North Carolina School of Law - Chapel Hill; Darnell Cole, Associate Professor of
Education at the Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California; and
William G. Tierney, University Professor, Wilbur-Kieffer Professor of Higher
Education, and Director for the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis at the
Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California for their guidance,
insightful comments, and continued support. The author also wishes to thank her
research assistants Marlayne Ingram, Rosezetta Upshaw, and Jessica Downey for their
assistance with this article. The author is most grateful for the helpful editing and
comments provided by Zaara Bajwa and Daniel E. Faltas, Editors -in-Chief of Rutgers
Race and Law Review.
I Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools
Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115
Stat. 272 (2001) [hereinafter PATRIOT Act of 2001]. USA PATRIOT is an acronym
that stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools
Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism. The Patriot Act is a complex piece of
legislation, difficult even for legal readers to absorb because it incorporates new law in

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