2 Risk 3 (1991)
Predictive Probabilities In Employee Drug-Testing

handle is hein.journals/risk2 and id is 13 raw text is: Predictive Probabilities In
Employee Drug-Testing
John M. Gleason and
Darold T. Barnum*
Introduction
When examining the risks of drug abuse, often the most compelling
statistics relate to accidents, safety, and health. For example, according
to the Federal Railroad Administration, errors attributed to substance-
impaired employees caused 34 fatalities and 66 injuries in 48 separate
incidents between 1975 and 1983.1 In addition to these direct effects,
however, there are also indirect effects, such as the impacts of drug use
on worker productivity, health insurance costs, legal liability, and even
employee-management relations.
Employees who are health-impaired due to substance abuse can be
expected to exhibit lower productivity as a result of performance
deficits, absenteeism, and higher turnover. One estimate of the financial
impact of lost productivity due to substance abuse in the U.S. is $99
billion annually.2
*  Professor Gleason teaches decision sciences in the College of Business
Administration and is a Fellow at the Center for Health Policy and Ethics, Creighton
University. His B.S. (mathematics) and M.B.A. were received from the University of
Missouri at Kansas City and his D.B.A. from Indiana University.
Professor Barnum is head of the department of management at the University of
Illinois at Chicago. His B.B.A. is from the University of Texas at Austin and his
M.B.A. and Ph.D. are from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
1  C. CORNISH, DRUGS AND ALCOHOLIN THE WORKPLACE: TESTING AND PRIvACY
(1988). See also,50 Fed. Reg. 31,516 (1985).
2 M. ROTHSTEIN, MEDICAL SCREENING AND THE EMPLOYEE HEALTH COST CRISIS
(1989); RESEARCH TRIANGLE INSTUTE, ECONOMIC COSTS TO SOCIETY OF ALCOHOL
AND DRUG ABUSE (1983); BNA SPECIAL REPORT, ALCOHOL AND DRUGS IN THE
WORKPLACE: COSTS, CONTROLS, AND CONTROvERSIES 7 (1986) [hereinafter BNA

2 RISK - Issues in Health & Safety 3 [Winter 19911

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