85 N.C. L. Rev. 1345 (2006-2007)
High-Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and Principals

handle is hein.journals/nclr85 and id is 1357 raw text is: HIGH-POVERTY SCHOOLS AND THE
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND
PRINCIPALS
CHARLES CLOTFELTER, HELEN F. LADD, JACOB VIGDOR, & JUSTIN
WHEELER*
Although many factors combine to make a successful school, most
people agree that quality teachers and school principals are among
the most important requirements for success, especially when
success is defined by the ability of the school to raise the
achievement of its students. The central question for this study is
how the quality of the teachers and principals in high-poverty
schools in North Carolina compares to that in the schools serving
more advantaged students.      A  related question is why these
differences emerge. The consistency of the patterns across many
measures of qualifications for both teachers and principals leaves
no doubt that students in the high-poverty schools are served by
school personnel with lower qualifications than those in the lower
poverty schools. Moreover, in many cases the differences are large.
Additional evidence documents that the differences largely reflect
predictable outcomes of the labor market for teachers and
principals. Hence, active policy interventions are needed to counter
these forces if the ultimate goal is to provide equal educational
opportunity.
INTRO D U CTIO N  ..................................................................................... 1346
1.    DEFINING HIGH-POVERTY SCHOOLS ..................................... 1350
II.   PATTERNS OF TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL QUALITY BY
POVERTY   Q UARTILE   ................................................................. 1353
A. Patterns of Teacher Qualifications ..................................... 1354
B.  Patterns of Principal Quality .............................................. 1359
III.  EXPLAINING   THE  PATTERNS .................................................... 1362
A. Teacher Turnover and Movement ...................................... 1363
B. Principal Turnover and Movement .................................... 1369
* Charles Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob Vigdor are professors at the Sanford
Institute of Public Policy, Duke University. Justin Wheeler is an analyst with
Mathematica Policy Research. The authors are grateful to Aaron Hedlund for excellent
research assistance and to the Spencer Foundation for financial support.

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