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27 N.C.J. Int'l L. & Com. Reg. 141 (2001-2002)
Seeking Justice for Comfort Women: Without an International Criminal Court, Suits Brought by World War II Sex Slaves of the Japenese Army May Find Their Best Hope of Success in U.S. Federal Courts

handle is hein.journals/ncjint27 and id is 149 raw text is: Seeking Justice for Comfort Women: Without an
International Criminal Court, Suits Brought by
World War II Sex Slaves of the Japanese Army May
Find Their Best Hope of Success in U.S. Federal
Courts
I.  Introduction  ....................................................................................... 142
II. B ackground  ....................................................................................... 148
A. Implementation of the Ianfu System ....................................... 148
B. Why No Suits Were Filed Until the 1990s .............................. 151
C. Official Japanese  Responses ................................................... 155
D. Responses from International Organizations .......................... 157
III.  A nalysis ............................................................................................ 160
A. Results to Date in Japanese Courts ......................................... 160
B. Reactions to Date in International Forums .............................. 164
1. U.N. Finds That Japan's Military Sex Slave
Activities Violated International Law ................................... 164
2. Impact of the ICTY's and ICTR's Recent
Holdings on Wartime Rape as a Violation of
International Law    .................................................................. 169
3. Effect of Installation of the ICC ........................................ 170
C. Results to  Date  in  U .S. Courts ................................................. 172
IV . C onclusion  ....................................................................................... 18 1
The comfort system consisted of the legalized military rape of
subject women on a scale-and over a period of time-
previously unknown in history.'
- GEORGE HICKS, THE COMFORT WOMEN
Many have asked me whether I am still angry with the Japanese.
Maybe it helped that I have faith. I . . . learned to accept
suffering. I also learned to forgive .... Half a century had
1 GEORGE HICKS, THE COMFORT WOMEN: SEX SLAVES OF THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL
FORCES XV (1995); see also DAVID ANDREW SCHMIDT, IANFu-THE COMFORT WOMEN OF
THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL ARMY OF THE PACIFIC WAR: BROKEN SILENCE 21 (2000) (calling
Japan's comfort stations one of the largest systems of state-sponsored rape and sexual
enslavement in history).

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