5 Md. J. Contemp. Legal Issues 199 (1994)
Toward Equal Justice: Where the United States Stands Two Decades Later

handle is hein.journals/mjcolei5 and id is 203 raw text is: Toward                      Where the
United States
Equal                    Stands Two
Justice:                    Decades Later
Earl Johnson, Jr.*
Nearly twenty years ago, Professors Mauro Cappelletti, James Gordley, and I
published a book, Toward EqualJustice: A Comparative Study of LegalAid in
Modern Societies (TowardEqualJustice).1 To the best of my knowledge, it was the
first book-length study of how legal services for the poor are provided in the world's
industrial democracies.2 Several of the national programs featured in Toward
EqualJustice were in their infancies at the time we were researching the book-
among them, the programs in Sweden and Quebec. We gave these two programs
some prominence because they embodied innovative features and often unusually
generous levels of financial support.3 Thus, I was fascinated to revisit these
programs in their adolescence through the papers prepared for the April 1993
. Justice, California Court of Appeal, since 1982. Former director, Office of Equal Opportunity Legal
Services Program (1966-68) and Professor of Law, University of Southern California (1969-82). He also
is President of the Board of the Consortium for the National Equal Justice Library, Inc., one of the
organizations which co-sponsored the symposium on Legal Services to the Poor in Other Countries-
A Comparative Review held at the University of Maryland School of Law on April 14, 1993. The National
Equal Justice Library, to open at American University in 1995, will include a comprehensive collection
of materials about legal aid programs in other countries
1 MAURO CAPPELLETTI ET AL., TOWARD EQUALJUSTICE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LEGAL AID IN MODERN
SOCIETIES (1975).
2 Since 1975, a number of books have been published comparing the organization, financing, or
delivery of legal services in various countries. See, e.g., PERSPECTIVES ON LEGALAID (FREDERICK H. ZEMANS
ED., 1979); JEREMY COOPER, PUBLIC LEGAL SERVICES, A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POLICY, POLITICS, AND
PRACTICE (1983); DIETER HOEHNE, LEGALAID IN CANADA (1989); DANIELS. LEV, LEGAL AID IN INDONESIA
(1989).
3 The new Swedish program was created in 1972. See CAPPELLETrI ET AL., supra note 1, at 525-84
(containing the full statute and detailed descriptive materials about the program). The Quebec program
was created in 1973. See id. at 584-628 (containing an English translation of the statute and descriptive
materials).

Maryland Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues

199

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