1 Melb. J. Int'l L. 131 (2000)
A Commentary on the Musema Judgment Rendered by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

handle is hein.journals/meljil1 and id is 139 raw text is: CASE NOTE
PROSECUTOR V MUSEMA*
A COMMENTARY ON THE MUSEMA JUDGMENT RENDERED BY THE
UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA
CONTENTS
I    Introduction  ............................................................................................................ 13 1
II   The Trial: Towards More Efficient Proceedings ................................................... 133
III  Issues of International Crim inal Procedure ............................................................ 136
A    T he  Sw iss  F iles  .......................................................................................... 137
B    T he  A libi  D efence  ..................................................................................... 138
IV   Individual Criminal Responsibility  as a Superior .................................................. 139
V    A pplicable  L aw   ...................................................................................................... 143
A    Rape  Constitutive  of Genocide .................................................................. 143
B    The Crime of Conspiracy to Commit Genocide ........................................ 146
V I  C onclusion  ............................................................................................................. 14 8
I     INTRODUCTION
On 27 January 2000, Trial Chamber I ('Chamber') of the International
Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda ('ICTR') rendered its 'Judgement and Sentence'
in Prosecutor v Musema ('Musema').2 Alfred Musema was found guilty of:
genocide;3 extermination constitutive of a crime against humanity4 and rape
constitutive of a crime against humanity.5 As punishment for these crimes, he
was condemned to a single sentence of life imprisonment.6
Case No ICTR-96-13-T (27 January 2000).
The full name of the ICTR is the 'International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of
Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International
Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens
Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of
Neighbouring States, Between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994': Statute of the
International Tribunal for Rwanda ('ICTR Statute'), annex to SC Res 955, 49 UN SCOR
(3453'd mtg), UN Doc SIRes/955 (1994); 33 ILM 1600 ('SC Res 955').
2 'Judgement and Sentence', Prosecutor v Musema, Case No ICTR-96-13-T (27 January
2000) (Aspegren J (Presiding) (Sweden), Kama J (Senegal) and Pillay J (South Africa)).
3 Ibid [936].
4 Ibid [951]. The applicable law of this offence is not considered in this case note.
5 Ibid [967]. The applicable law of this offence is not considered in this case note.
6 Ibid [1008].

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