14 Soc. F. 263 (1935-1936)
The Anglo-Indians: A Disorganized Marginal Group

handle is hein.journals/josf14 and id is 279 raw text is: RACE, CULTURAL GROUPS, SOCIAL
DIFFERENTIATION
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and theorics; ()eports of specia! procts, working programs cooferences and mcctigs, and progress in any distinctive aspect
THE ANGLO-INDIANS: A DISORGANIZED MARGINAL GROUP
PAUL FREDERICK CRESSEY
Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts

OUR centuries of European contact
with India have left a biological
residue of many thousand people of
mixed European and Indian stock. Since
1911 this group has been officially desig-
nated by the government of India as the
Anglo-Indian Community.1 Elsewhere in
Asia racial hybrids of European and
Oriental stock are commonly known as
Eurasians. The Anglo-Indians are by far
the largest group of such hybrids in Asia.
The distribution of the Anglo-Indians
accurately reflects their history. They
are concentrated in those areas where the
maximum European contact has occurred.
In the four largest port cities, Calcutta,
Bombay, Madras, and Rangoon, live one-
third of all the Anglo-Indians, while an
additional one-third live in other parts
of the provinces in which these cities are
located.2   Anglo-Indians     are  predomi-
nantly city dwellers, and their life and
problems have an urban setting.
In 1931 the Anglo-Indian population of
India and Burma was returned by the
I Europeans permanently living in India to whom
this term was formerly applied are now referred to as
Domiciled Europeans, or occasionally as Anglo-
Indians (old style). The term community or
communal as used in India refers to a cultural
group without regard to the ecological aspects of its
distribution.
I Census of India, 1931, (London, 1933) Vol. I,
Part II, pp. 562-9.
2.6-

official census as 138,395. This repre-
sents an increase of 2.2-4 per cent during
the preceding decade, and i2.9 per cent
for the last fifty years.' The increase in
the total population of India in these
same periods has been io.i per cent and
31.3 per cent respectively. There is a
tendency for many persons of light com-
plexion to return themselves as British,
and some Indian Christians are enumerated
as Anglo-Indians. The Census of India
recognizes these errors and estimates the
corrected total for Anglo-Indians to be
approximately x65,ooo.4 In 1931 the sex
ratio was i,o6i Anglo-Indian males for
every i,ooo females.5
Many European stocks are represented
among these hybrids, including British,
French, Dutch, and        Portuguese. The
term Anglo-Indian is thus something of a
misnomer, but the largest single stock is
British, and the group is predominantly
British in its cultural affiliations. On the
Indian side the stock is almost entirely of
Hindu origin, only a very few persons
being of Moslem descent. There is no
3 Census of India, zg3r, Vol. I, Part I, p. 429.
4 Ibid., P. 42-9-
5 Ibid., p. 562.. This is in contrast to the marked
excess of females among the mulattoes of the United
States, the ratio in 19io being 886 males to looo
females. E. B. Reuter, Race Mixture, (New York,
1931) p. 67.

SOCIAL FORCES, VOL. 14, wO. 2

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