18 J. Legis. 249 (1991-1992)
Budget Emergencies

handle is hein.journals/jleg18 and id is 255 raw text is: BUDGET EMERGENCIES
William G. Dauster*
The law governing the Federal budget process creates limits on spending
legislation. It also provides an exception for emergencies. In this Article, Mr.
Dauster examines the budget emergency exception, tracing its history in recent
budget summits, the legislative history of the current law, and attempts to define
the exception. The Article goes on to discuss concerns that the emergency
exception creates for relations between the President and the Congress.
Contents
I. THE HISTORY OF THE EMERGENCY EXCEPTION ..........                                               251
A.     The 1987 Budget Summit .............................................                  251
B.    The 1989 Budget Summit ..............................................                  252
C.    The 1990 Budget Summit ..............................................                  253
D.    Congressional Debate on            the Budget Enforcement Act .......                  256
II. THE BUDGET ENFORCEMENT ACT'S STATUTORY
SCHEME .........................................................................             259
A.    Appropriations Caps ....................................................               259
B.    The Pay-as-You-Go Process ..........................................                   261
C.    Deficit Targets ............................................................           262
D.    Emergencies Under the New               Law ...................................        262
1.   The General Rule ...................................................             262
2.   The Effect of the President's Signature ......................                    265
3.   Congressional Enforcement ......................................                  268
4.    Desert Shield Costs ................................................             269
III.    DEFINING        EMERGENCIES ..............................................                  272
A.    Dictionary Definitions ..................................................              272
B.    The Statutory Scheme ..................................................                273
1.   Emergency Desert Shield Costs .................................                   273
2.    Statutory Context ...................................................            273
C.    Legislative History .......................................................            274
D.    Congressional and Administrative Interpretations ..............                        274
1.   The Office of Management and Budget's Definition .....                           274
2.   Deep Personal Need ...............................................                276
E.    Precedent ...................................................................          277
1.   Desert Shield/Desert Storm            Supplemental ...................            278
2.    Dire Emergency Supplemental ..................................                   280
3.   Humanitarian Assistance Supplemental ......................                       285
* Chief Counsel, Committee on the Budget, United States Senate. B.A. University of Southern
California, 1978; M.A. University of Southern California, 1981; J.D. Columbia University, 1984.
The views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of the Committee on the Budget.
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