5 J. Legal Aspects Sport 28 (1995)
The Economic Impact of Licensing Logos, Emblems and Mascots

handle is hein.journals/jlas5 and id is 34 raw text is: Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 5(1), 1995, 28-34

The Economic Impact of Licensing
Logos, Emblems and Mascots
Ruth H. Alexander
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
The history of emblems, logos, and mascots extend to early intercollegiate
football competition with the Ivy League schools choosing such ever popular
mascots as the famous Yale Bulldog, known as Handsome Dan, the Brown
University Bruin and the Princeton Tiger. As other public and private universities
were established, these institutional mascots became well recognized symbols of
their schools, such as the Wisconsin Badger, the University of Florida Gator, the
Florida State Seminole, the Duke Blue Devil, the Virginia Cavalier, the Trinity
College Bantam and others. Other symbols or marks also became representative of
an institution such as the '' for the University of Tennessee and yet another T
for the University of Texas. The state is also recognized for the University of Florida
and the S for St. Lawrence University. Some schools are referred to as colors like
the Big Red of Cornell University or the Crimson Tide of the University of
Alabama. All these marks have become very recognizable with whom they
represent, whether the'T' forTexas or Tennessee, or the Bulldogs of Yale, Georgia
or Mississippi State. The public has learned to quickly identify these precious
mascots and symbols of a given institution.
Logos, emblems and mascots are traditional symbols of institutionalized sports
in America. Whether these represent professional, collegiate or high school teams,
the importance of the identity established by these marks with the organization they
represent has increased in the last decade and more specifically, the last five years
economically. Even though many of these symbols are more than a century old, not
until the legal battles of the National Football League in the late 1970s and the
University of Pittsburg, Texas A & M University and the United States Olympic
Committee in the early 1980s, did the economic impact become significantly
realized. The increased income generated by the licensing of these marks suddenly
became staggering. The courts' decisions in these litigations concerning the use of
these trademarks, or marks, have become extremely important due to the corre-
sponding economic impact.
The Federal Trademark Act of 1946 (Wong, 1988, p. 512) also known as the
Lanham Act, controls the law of trademark registration and the remedies for
infringement of registered trademarks. A trademark is defined as ...any word,

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