2 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 221 (1991-1992)
Apartheid Outside Africa: The Case of Israel

handle is hein.journals/iicl2 and id is 53 raw text is: Apartheid Outside Africa: The Case of Israel

John Quigley*
The term apartheid evokes South Africa, but systematic racial
discrimination is not unique to that nation. Charges have emerged
from many quarters. Some aboriginal peoples claim they are victims.
Religious-based states may violate the rights of racial groups that do
not adhere to the religion. Racial groups not reflected in the power
base are found in Africa and the Middle East, where colonial-drawn
boundaries threw racial groups together in a single state. As Eastern
Europe changes its political face, racial animosities are surfacing that
may yield systematic oppression of minorities.
The apartheid claim has been leveled in Israel, whose treatment
of its minority population of Arabs has been the subject of controversy.
The United Nations General Assembly called Zionism, the national
ideology of Israel, a form of racism and racial discrimination, a
charge prompted primarily by Israel's treatment of the Arabs within
its borders.' British historian Arnold Toynbee called Israel a racialist
state. . . and said that it is wrong that people feel differently about
the rights and wrongs of the existence of the state of Israel versus white
South Africa .... 2
Others have challenged this charge. Thomas Franck wrote that
[t]he South African problem    has almost nothing in common with
that of Israel.' The term racism in the General Assembly resolution,
*  Professor of Law, Ohio State University. LL.B., M.A. 1966, Harvard Law
School; M.A.
1. G.A. Res. 3379, U.N. GAOR, 30th sess. Supp. No. 34, at 83, U.N. Doc.
A/10034 (1976).
2. Arnold Toynbee on the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Interview, 2 J. Palestine Stud. 3, 11-
12, no. 3 (1973). For other authors characterizing Israel's treatment of the Palestinian
Arabs as apartheid-like, see Brice Harris, Jr., The South Africanization of Israel, 6 ARAB
STUD. Q. 169-189 (1984); Shawky Zeidan, A Human Rights Settlement: The West Bank
and Gaza, HUMAN RIGHTS AND THIRD WORLD DEVELOPMENT 170 (George Shepherd &
Ved Nanda eds. 1985) [hereinafter Zeidan]; LEFTEN STAVRIANOS, GLOBAL RiFr: THE
THIRD WORLD COMES OF AGE 784 (1981).
3. THOMAS M. FRANCK, NATION AGAINST NATION: WHAT HAPPENED TO THE
U.N. DREAM AND WHAT THE U.S. CAN Do ABOUT IT 219 (1985).

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