15 U. Pa. J.L. & Soc. Change 285 (2011-2012)
The Eighth Amendment Evolves: Defining Cruel and Unusual Punishment through the Lens of Childhood and Adolescence

handle is hein.journals/hybrid15 and id is 293 raw text is: THE EIGHTH AMENDMENT EVOLVES: DEFINING CRUEL AND UNUSUAL
PUNISHMENT THROUGH THE LENS OF CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
MARSHA LEVICK, JESSICA FEIERMAN, SHARON MESSENHEIMER KELLEY,
NAOMI E. S. GOLDSTEIN, KACEY MORDECAI*
INTRODUCTION: LOOKING BACKWARDS, LOOKING FORWARD...................                               286
I.       DEVELOPMENTAL IMMATURITY: RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENT
D EV ELO  PM  EN  T  ............................................................................................................. 293
A .  D ecision-M  aking  ....................................................................................................... 293
B .  Im p ulsivity  ................................................................................................................ 294
C .  V ulnerability  ............................................................................................................. 295
D.   Transitory  N ature  of Adolescence ............................................................................. 297
E.   Neurological Differences Between Youth and Adults .............................................. 298
II.     GRAHAM V. FLORIDA AND ROPER V. SIMMONS: THE UNITED STATES
SUPREME COURT EMBEDS ITS EIGHTH AMENDMENT ANALYSIS OF
JUVENILE SENTENCES IN RESEARCH ..................................................................... 299
A.   A  New  Look   at Juvenile  Sentencing  ......................................................................... 300
B.   A New Look at Juvenile Conditions of Confinement ............................................... 306
1.  Problem  s  Facing  Confined  Youth ....................................................................... 307
2.  The  Adult Standard: A   Tough  Bar ...................................................................... 308
3.  A   N ew   Juvenile  Standard  ................................................................................... 310
Assessing the Seriousness of the Harm in Juvenile Cases...................       312
Assessing Official Intent in Juvenile Cases ........................................................ 313
* Marsha L. Levick is the Deputy Director and Chief Counsel for the Juvenile Law Center, a national public interest law
firm for children based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which Ms. Levick co-founded in 1975. Ms. Levick is a graduate of
the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University School of Law, and is an adjunct faculty member at the University
of Pennsylvania and Temple University Law Schools. Ms. Levick acknowledges the generous support of the Tow
Foundation in the preparation of this article.
Jessica Feierrnan is a Supervising Attorney at Juvenile Law Center, and an adjunct faculty member at the University of
Pennsylvania and Temple University Law Schools. Ms. Feierman is a graduate of Wesleyan University and the University
of Pennsylvania Law School.
Sharon Messenheimer Kelley is a graduate student in the J.D./Ph.D. Program in Law and Psychology at Villanova
University School of Law and Drexel University. Ms. Kelley is a graduate of St. Mary's College of Maryland.
Naomi E. S. Goldstein, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology at Drexel University and a member of the faculty of
the J.D./Ph.D. Program in Law and Psychology. Dr. Goldstein is a graduate of Wesleyan University, obtained her doctoral
degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and completed her clinical internship at
the University of Massachusetts Medical School.
Kacey Mordecai is a Stoneleigh Fellow at the Juvenile Law Center and works on the Integrating International Human
Rights Law in Juvenile Justice Jurisprudence project. Ms. Mordecai is a graduate of the University of Chicago and
Georgetown University Law Center.

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