97 Harv. L. Rev 1276 (1983-1984)
The Ideology of Bureaucracy in American Law

handle is hein.journals/hlr97 and id is 1294 raw text is: THE IDEOLOGY OF BUREAUCRACY IN AMERICAN LAW
Gerald E. Frug
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
I.  THE  ARGUMENT  ..........................................................  1279
A. The Stories that Justify Bureaucracy ..................................... 1279
B. The SubjectivelObjective Dichotomy ...................................... 1286
C.  The Nature of Legal Argument ...........................................  1292
D. The Phenomena of Abstraction and Reification ............................. 1293
E. The Choice Between Bureaucracy and Democracy .......................... 1295
II. AN ANALYSIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND CORPORATE LAW DOCTRINES ........... 1296
A.  The  Formalist M odel ...................................................  1297
x.  The M odel Described  ................................................  2297
2. Formalism in Administrative Law: The Nondelegation Doctrine ........... 1300
3. Formalism in Corporate Law: Agency Theory and Trustee Theory ......... 1305
(a)  Agency  Theory  ...................................................  2305
(b)  Trustee  Theory ...................................................  1307
4. An Overview of the Critique of the Model .............................. 2312
B.  The Expertise M odel ....................................................  1318
z.  The M odel Described  ................................................  1318
2. The Business Judgment Rule and Administrative Expertise ............... 1322
(a) The Requirement of Judgment ..................................... 1323
(b) The Requirement of Impersonality .................................. 1326
3.  The  Vision  of  Super-Expert ...........................................  1327
4. An Overview of the Critique of the Model .............................. 1331
C.  The Judicial Review  M odel ..............................................  1334
z.  The M odel Described  ................................................  1334
2. Substantive Definitions of the CourtlBureaucracy Boundary .............. 2338
3. Procedural Devices for Drawing the CourtlBureaucracy Boundary ......... 2343
4. An  Overview  of  the Model ............................................  1350
D. The Market/Pluralist Model ............................................. 2355
i.  The  M odel Described  ................................................  1355
2. The Disciplining Mechanism of the Market ............................. 2362
3. The Disciplining Mechanism of Interest-Group Pluralism ................. 1368
4. An Overview of the Critique of the Model .............................. 1373
iT. SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS ............................................. 1377

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