118 Harv. L. Rev. 2047 (2004-2005)

handle is hein.journals/hlr118 and id is 2073 raw text is: VOLUME 118                                    MAY 2005                                    NUMBER7
HARVARD LAW REVIEW
ARTICLE
CONGRESSIONAL AUTHORIZATION AND THE
WAR ON TERRORISM
Curtis A. Bradley and Jack L. Goldsmith
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  IN T R O D U C T IO N   ...................................................................................................................... 2048
II. Two MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE AUMF ............................................................ 2056
A. War Declarations and Force Authorizations ................................................................... 2057
B .  Is  This  a  R eal  W ar? ........................................................................................................ 2o 66
III. THE AUMF IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ................................................................... 2072
A. Historical Comparison of Authorizations To Use Force ................................................ 2072
B .  The  Septem ber  i8, 2oo   A UM F  ...................................................................................... 2078
IV. ADDITIONAL INTERPRETIVE FACTORS RELEVANT TO
C ON  STRUIN   G  TH E  AU M F  ................................................................................................. 2083
A.  E xecutive  Branch  Practice  .........................................................................................   2085
B. The AUMF and the International Laws of War ........................................................ 2o88
i. The Laws of War as a Source of Authorized Powers ................................................ 2091
2. The Laws of War as a Limitation on Authorized Powers ......................................... 2094
3. The Laws of War as a Prohibition on Presidential Action ................................... 296
C. The President's Independent Constitutional Authority ................................................. 2100
D.  Clear Statement Requirem     ents ..................................................................................... 2102
V. APPLICATIONS TO THE WAR ON TERRORISM ................................................................. 2107
A.  W ho  Is the  Enem y  Under the AUM   F? ............................................................................. 2107
i. Which Terrorist Organizations Are Covered by the AUMF? .................................. 2109
2. Requisite Association with Terrorist Organizations .................................................. 2113
B. Location of the Battlefield and Length of Detention ..................................................... 2117
i.  L ocation  of  the  B attlefield  ............................................................................................ 2117
2.  L ength  of  D etention  ...................................................................................................... 2123
C .  M ilitary  C om m issions  ....................................................................................................... 2127
V I.  C O N C L U SIO N   ........................................................................................................................ 2133

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