115 Harv. L. Rev. 1559 (2001-2002)
Sovereign Immunity as a Doctrine of Personal Jurisdiction

handle is hein.journals/hlr115 and id is 1581 raw text is: VOLUME 115

APRIL 2002

NUMBER 6

HARVARD LAW REVIEW                                                                                    j
ARTICLE
SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY AS A DOCTRINE
OF PERSONAL JURISDICTION
Caleb Nelson
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IN T RO D UCTIO N   ............................................................................................................................. 1561
I. THE FOUNDERS' FRAMEWORK FOR SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY ............................................. 1567
A. Personal Jurisdiction and the Importance of Commanding Defendants
To  A ppear ............................................................................................................................. 1568
i.  T he  English  B ackground  ............................................................................................. 1568
2.  The  Bottom   Line  in  Am erica  ....................................................................................... '573
B. States and Compulsory Process Before the Constitution ............................................... 1574
C. Did the Constitution Make States Amenable to Individuals' Suits? ............................ 158o
x. The States as Sovereigns After the Constitution ................................................... 58o
2.  The  Language  of Article  III ..................................................................................... x585
D. Compulsory Process and the Original Debate ................................................................. 1592
r. Evidence from   the Ratification  Debates ..................................................................... 1592
2. Evidence from Post-Ratification Attempts To Sue States .................................. 595
3. Evidence from the States' Reactions to Chisholm ................................................ 599
4. Does the Eleventh Amendment Provide Counterevidence? ..................................... 1602
E .  C onclusion  .......................................................................................................................... 16o8
II. THE LEGAL EFFECT OF THE ELEVENTH AMENDMENT .................................................. 16o8
A. The Hybrid Nature of Current Doctrine .......................................................................... s6og
B. Separating the Roo Strands of Current Doctrine ....................................................... 61x
i. Did the Eleventh Amendment Simply Codify the Traditional Framework? ......... 1613
2. The Argument for a Two-Track System of Jurisdictional Immunities .................... 1615
3.  Som e  O ther Possibilities ............................................................................................... 1617
(a) Did the Eleventh Amendment Supersede the Traditional Framework? .......... 1617
(b) Did the Restoration of the Traditional Framework Supersede
the  Eleventh  Am endm ent? .................................................................................... 1620
(c) Has the Content of the Traditional Framework Changed? ............................... 1621
II. CAN CONGRESS ABROGATE THE STATES' IMMUNITIES? ................................................. 1622
A. The Subject Matter Jurisdiction Type of Immunity Cannot Be Abrogated .............. 1623

1559

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