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38 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 511 (2006)
Means and Methods of Warfare

handle is hein.journals/gwilr38 and id is 521 raw text is: MEANS AND METHODS OF WARFARE

This symposium honors a long-time colleague. I met Ed Cum-
mings in 1974 when, as a first lieutenant in the Army Judge Advo-
cate General Corps, he was a student in the Judge Advocate
Officers Basic Course at the Army's The Judge Advocate General's
School. I was the Marine Corps representative on the faculty,
teaching the law of war. It has been my honor and pleasure to
work closely with Ed since that time in a variety of ways. In addi-
tion to speaking with Ed almost daily in his State Department posi-
tion, Ed served his Army Reserve duty in my former office, the
International and Operational Law Division of the Office of The
Judge Advocate General of the Army.
I have been asked to focus on one aspect of Ed's many contribu-
tions to international law and the law of war: the means and meth-
ods of warfare. It is an area in which Ed was deeply involved,
making major contributions to the development of the law. Ed's
service to our nation began as an intern in the International Affairs
Division of the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Army,
working for the late Waldemar A. Solf, one of the true experts on
the law of war. One of Ed's first contributions to the law of war was
an article published in the Military Law Review on the diplomatic
history of protection for medical aircraft.' Recently I had occasion
to refer to it for a paper I was preparing. Although his article pre-
ceded the medical aircraft provisions in the 1977 Additional Proto-
col I, it remains the best diplomatic history of efforts by
governments to find a workable formula for the protection of med-
ical aircraft.
The greatest development in the law of war with respect to
means and methods of warfare in recent history has been in the
area of regulation of certain conventional weapons. The 1977
Additional Protocols-particularly Additional Protocol I-contain
* International Affairs Division, Office of General Counsel, Department of Defense;
Adjunct Faculty, Washington College of Law, American University. A.B. 1963, Baylor Uni-
versity; J.D. 1966, Baylor University Law School.
1. Edward R. Cummings, The Juridical Status of Medical Aircraft under the Conventional
Laws of War, 66 M[L. L. REv. 105 (1974).

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