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11 Fla. J. Int'l L. 517 (1996-1997)
Some Milestones and Achievements at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The 1998 Kambanda and Akayesu Cases

handle is hein.journals/fjil11 and id is 525 raw text is: SOME MILESTONES AND ACHIEVEMENTS AT THE
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR
RWANDA: THE 1998 KAMBANDA AND
AKAYESU CASES
Paul J. Magnarella*
I.  INTRODUCTION  .................................   517
II. BACKGROUND TO THE RWANDAN CRISIS AND
THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA .... 518
III. THE CASE AGAINST JEAN KAMBANDA .................. 522
A.  Introduction  . ................................  522
B. Kambanda's Background and Arrest ................ 522
C.  Indictment . .................................  523
D. Kambanda's Admissions and Sentence ............. 524
E.  Conclusion  . ................................  527
IV. THE CASE AGAINST JEAN-PAUL AKAYESU ................ 528
A.  Introduction . ................................  528
B.  Akayesu's Background  . ........................  528
C.  Arrest and Indictment ..........................  528
D. Are the Tutsi a Protected Group? .................. 529
E.  Determining  Intent ............................  532
F. Sexual Violence and Rape as Crimes Against
Humanity and Genocide ........................ 532
V.  SOME FINAL OBSERVATONS  ........................   537
I. INTRODUCTION
During 1998 the United Nations (U.N.) International Criminal Tribunal
for Rwanda (ICTR) made significant progress in the prosecution of persons
* Professor of Anthropology and Visiting Professor of Law, University of Florida.
Ph.D., Harvard University, J.D., University of Florida. Special Counsel to the Association of
Third World Studies. Expert on Mission with the U.N. Criminal Tribunal for the Former
Yugoslavia in the Hague during the summer of 1995. The ideas expressed here do not
necessarily represent the views of either Tribunal.
The author thanks the University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and
the Fredric G. Levin College of Law for the kind research support.
The author dedicates this article to the people of Rwanda.

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