29 Fed. Probation 44 (1965)
The Role of the Rat in the Prison

handle is hein.journals/fedpro29 and id is 46 raw text is: FEDERAL PROBATION

legal restraints The statistical findings were not
. The only conclusions that could be drawn were
the following:
(1) Former parolees who again reverted to
drugs after completion of their sentences ap-
peared to realize that parole was a type of
crutch which helped them to abstain from
drugs while on parole but they were ill-pre-
pared to face society and its demands without
the supportive casework service tendered by the
parole officer. Having become aware of the re-
moval of the support, these addict-parolees suc-
cumbed to developing anxieties and frustrations
and eventually returned to drugs to allay their
fears. This would-suggest the presence of a seg-
ment in the addict population which can respond
favorably to a longer lasting type of structured
environment and who are prepared to organize
their lives around it.
(2) Those parolees, who subsequently con-
tinued to abstain from drugs and by whom
parole was no longer needed as an emotional
crutch, responded negatively and were of the
opinion that an indefinite extension of parole

would be of no value. This segment of the addict-
parolee population utilized the resources of the
Division of Parole as a halfway structure to
help them learn to stand on their own two feet
and  by   the  maximum    expiration  of their
sentences had attained sufficient growth and
stability to continue to function in a socially
approved manner in the community without ex-
ternal help.
The introduction of an escalator provision in
the law for the extension of an adjudged drug
user's sentence, to provide for his supervision
after release on parole for a period of 3 or *5
years, offers food for thought. The extension of
supervision would not guarantee success in the
form of continued abstinence in every case.
However, the findings above are suggestive that
a portion of the addict-parolee population would
be helped to abstain from drugs for a longer
period of time than under the present laws. The
size of this segment cannot be ascertained from
the study described because of the small samp-
ling. Nevertheless, the responses received from
those who reverted to drugs after having demon-
strated an ability to abstain while under parole
supervision lends support to this suggestion.

The Role .of the Rat in the Prison
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of California Medical School, San Francisco,
and Consultant, California Department of Corrections

N MAY 1961 a living group program was begun
at San Qpentin Prison, inaugurating a state-
wide program known as-ICE (Increased Cor-
rectional Effectiveness).1 Prisoners are selected
by a base expectancy test which predicts probable
parole success. The majority of the men are in the
medium risk range for parole success. There are
usually about 60 inmates in the unit. All are in
minimum custody status; they live together in the
0 Dr. Wilmer served as psychiatric consultant to the program dis-
cussed in this article..The opinions expressed are thos of the author
The San Quentin ICE program has been under the administative
control and support of Fred Dickson. warden; Rihard Achuff, asso
clate waren for care and treatment; and Irvine Marks and Howard
MeGarry, supervylsi counselors.
Hary4. Wiler. A Living Group Experiment atSaQunn
Prisn    o~recseh P   cTv and Jouneal f.. So ia T/hmn', Mah
, H. A. Wilmer. Good Guys and Bad Guys, Cormtiond Pachit
end Jourital of social Them (in press).

ranch just outside the walls, work together and
meet as a community with staff for 1 hour 5
nights a week. They also meet in small groups
twice a week. And there is a husband-and-wife
group once a week. A total family group including
children as well as parents meets once a month.
Parole agents from a special ICE unit in San
Francisco visit the community meetings regu-
larly. These agents accept inmates on their case-
load in the last 60 days of the inmates' stay in the
prison. The men can select their own agents if a
vacancy exists in the agent's 30-man caseload. The
agents continue both large and small groups on
the streets with the ICE parolees as a bridge to
the community. A study of the. program entitled
Good Guys and Bad Guys has been reported.2)

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