52 DePaul L. Rev. 849 (2002-2003)
September 11 and Mexican Immigrants: Collateral Damage Comes Home

handle is hein.journals/deplr52 and id is 859 raw text is: SEPTEMBER 11 AND MEXICAN IMMIGRANTS:
COLLATERAL DAMAGE COMES HOME
Kevin R. Johnson*
INTRODUCTION
The federal government responded swiftly to the mass destruction
and horrible loss of life on September 11, 2001. Quickly initiating a
war on terror, the U.S. government pursued military action in Afghan-
istan.' The violation of the civil rights of Arab and Muslim nonci-
tizens in the United States followed as well.2 In the months
immediately after September 11, the federal government arrested, in-
terrogated, and detained more than one thousand Arab and Muslim
material witnesses without charging them with crimes.3 Congress
swiftly passed the Uniting and Strengthening America by Proving Ap-
propriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act
(USA PATRIOT Act),4 which, among other things amended the im-
migration laws in important ways. Although Arab and Muslim nonci-
tizens felt the brunt of the civil rights deprivations in the immediate
* Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. University of California at Davis. Professor of Law
and Chicana/o Studies: Director. Chicana/o Studies Program (2000-01): A.B.. University of Cali-
fornia. Berkeley: J.D.. Harvard University. Thanks to Craig Mousin. Gil Gott. and Sumi Cho for
their roles in assisting the students organizing the symposium and for their hospitality to the
symposium participants. Thanks also to the DePaul Law Review editors, especially Mary Ann
Becker and Mark Bradford, for organizing a memorable immigration symposium of academics,
activists, lawyers, and students.
1. See Sean D. Murphy. Contemnporarv Practice of the United States Relating to International
Law. 96 AM. J. INT'L L. 237. 237-55 (2002) (describing events of September 11. 2001 and the U.S.
government's response).
2. See Viet D. Dinh. Foreword: Freedom and Securi After September II. 25 HARV. J.L. &
PUB. POL'S 399. 401-06 (2002) (describing U.S. government's conduct in the war on terrorism):
see also The Afteroiath of Septeniher 11: A Chronology. 79 INTERPRETER RELEASES 1359 app. 1
(2002) (providing a chronology of legal responses of Bush administration to events of September
11. 2001). See generally WILLIAM H. REHNOUIST, ALL THE LAWS BU ONE: CiViL LIBERTIES IN
TIMES OF WAR (1998) (analyzing history of restrictions of civil liberties in wartime).
3. See Susan M. Akram & Kevin R. Johnson. Race, Civil Rights, and Immigration Law After
September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs anid Muslims, 58 N.Y.U. ANN. SURV. AM. L. 295
(2002).
4. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept
and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act). Pub. L. No. 107-56.  412. 201-25.
115 Stat. 272. 278-96. 350-52 (2001) [hereinafter USA PATRIOT Act].

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