7 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 3 (1974-1975)
The Arab Oil Embargo and United States Pressure against Chile: Economic and Political Coercion and the Charter of the United Nations

handle is hein.journals/cwrint7 and id is 9 raw text is: The Arab Oil Embargo and United
States Pressure Against Chile:
Economic and Political Coercion and
the Charter of the United Nations
Hartmut Brosche
INTRODUCTION
A CONOMIC WARFARE is a game that all can play. Many
I   states have played this game, especially since 1945. In that
year Article 2(4) of the Charter of the United Nations established
the general prohibition of the threat or use of force, a provision

THE AUTHOR: HARTMUT BROSCHE
(Juristisches  Staatsexamen,  Supreme
Court of Lower Saxony; Dr. iur., Uni-
versitit G6ttingen; LL.M., University of
California, Berkeley) is a former Assis-
tent at the Institut fur V61kerrecht, Uni-
versirdt Gottingen, Germany and is cur-
rently working under the auspices of the
Supreme Court of Lower Saxony (Refer-
endarzeit).  His other works in this
field include a book, Zwang beim Ab-
schluss v6lkerrechtlicher Vertrdige (Ber-
lin, 1974).
U.S. and other states with needed

which  Waldock   called  the
corner stone of peace in the
Charter.1  Since  then  new
problems have arisen and the
world situation has changed.
Richard N. Gardner2 dealt
with this changing world situ-
ation and noticed these facts of
life when he proposed to deny
U.S. exports and aid to coun-
tries which refuse to supply the
raw materials.' His speech given

on November 14, 1973 before 2,000 business leaders at the 60th
National Foreign Trade Convention stimulated many U.S. Senators
to ask for major changes in President Nixon's trade legislation.
In his statement Professor Gardner proposed that the pending
trade bill be revised from top to bottom to take account of the re-
cent developments in international relations such as the use of eco-
nomic and political pressure. With special emphasis on the Arab oil
embargo, he asked that the President be authorized to deny United
1 Waldock, The Regulation of the Use of Force hy Individual States in International
Law, 81 RECUEIL DES COURS 451 (1952).
2 Currently Henry L. Moses Professor of Law and International Organization, Pro-
fessor Gardner has also served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Af-
fairs in the Kennedy Administration and was a member of President Nixon's Commis-
sion on International Trade and Investment Policy.
3 Columbia Law Alumni Observer, Dec., 1973, at 12.

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