95 Colum. L. Rev. 1613 (1995)
Issue 7

handle is hein.journals/clr95 and id is 1623 raw text is: COLUMBIA LAW REVIEW
VOL. 95                   NOVEMBER 1995                         NO. 7
THE SCIENCE CHARADE IN TOXIC RISK REGULATION
Wendy E. Wagner*
Introduction  ....................................................  1614
I. The Science-Policy Nature of Toxic Risk Problems .......... 1618
A. The Mixture of Science and Policy .................... 1618
1.  Limits  of Science  ..................................  1619
2. The Fragmented Contributions of Science .......... 1622
B. The Need for Experts in Separating Science and
Policy  .................................................  1627
II. The Prevalence of the Science Charade .................... 1628
A. The Unintentional Charade ........................... 1631
B. The Irrtentional Charade .............................. 1640
C. The Premeditated Charade ............................ 1644
III. Political, Legal, and Bureaucratic Incentives for Agencies to
Engage in the Science Charade ............................ 1650
A.  Political Incentives  ....................................  1651
B.  Legal Incentives .......................................  1654
1. Decreased Public Involvement ...................... 1654
2. Interest Group Oversight ........................... 1657
3.  Judicial Review  .....................................  1661
4. Science-Based Legislative Mandates ................. 1667
C. Institutional Incentives ................................ 1669
1.  Nonscientists .......................................  1669
2.  Scientists  ..........................................  1671
IV. Consequences of the Science Charade ...................... 1673
A. Barriers to Democratic Participation ................... 1674
B. Impediments to Protecting Public Health .............. 1677
1. Inaction and Delay ................................. 1678
2. A Skewed Prioritization System ..................... 1681
3.  Transaction  Costs ..................................  1684
* Assistant Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law. BA., 1982,
Hanover College; M.E.S., 1984, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; J.D.,
1987, Yale Law School. I am extraordinarily grateful to Bert Black, Rebecca Dresser,
George DentJon Entin, Peter Gerhart, Paul Giannelli, William Marshall, Andrew Morriss,
Anne Park, Richard Pierce, Robert Strassfeld, and Michael Walker for their comments on
earlier drafts, to Judy Reardon, James Drozdowski, Silvia Riechel, Martin Gelfand, and
Rhonda Baker for their editorial and research assistance, and to Ellie Ettinger for her
secretarial help. This research was supported by summer grants from Case Western
Reserve University School of Law.

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