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11 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 101 (1986)
An Evaluation of Pollution Control Legislation in India

handle is hein.journals/cjel11 and id is 107 raw text is: An Evaluation Of Pollution Control
Legislation In India
C.M. Abraham*
Armin Rosencranz**
When India and other nations convened the U.N. Conference
at Stockholm in June, 1972, it marked a new epoch in interna-
tional concern for the environment. The delegates returned to
their respective countries with the common purpose of establish-
ing policies to protect natural resources. They hoped to enact
laws to preserve the quality of air, water and soil resources;' na-
tional efforts would be assisted by the establishment of interna-
tional information services.2 In the heady atmosphere that
prevailed at Stockholm, the goal of a general improvement in the
global environment did not seem beyond reach.3
India was among those nations responding to the call for a
cleaner environment. However, India's environment has im-
proved very slowly since 1972. This can be ascribed largely to
conditions that have affected many developing countries, such as
population growth, the increasing per capita demand for goods
and services, and the migration from depressed rural areas to
overcrowded metropolitan centers.4 As a result of these eco-
nomic and demographic pressures, India's statutory pollution
control framework has gone largely unimplemented.
In this article, we will point out several weaknesses in India's
statutory scheme for environmental protection. Notwithstanding
these weaknesses, India's bureaucratic structure for pollution
control is not woefully inadequate. The main problem lies in the
* Advocate, High Court of the State of Kerala, India; B.A. American College, Madurai
(1976); L.L.B. Government Law College, Trivandrum (1980); L.L.M. University of Cochin
** Fulbright Visiting Professor of Law, University of Cochin, India (1983-84); A.B.
Princeton University (1958); J.D., Ph.D. Stanford University (1962, 1970).
1. U.N. Conference on the Human Environment, 27 U.N. GAOR Supp. 30 (A/8730,
A/Res/2997, 1972).
2. Id.
3. Smith, Stockholm, Summer of '72: An Affair to Remember?, A.B.A.J., Nov. 1972, at 1194.
4. U.N.E.P., The State of the Environment, 26-50 (1972-82).

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