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92 Calif. L. Rev. 1 (2004)
The Laws of the Virtual Worlds

handle is hein.journals/calr92 and id is 13 raw text is: California Law Review
VOL. 92                              JANUARY 2004                                  No. 1
Copyright © 2004 by California Law Review, Inc., a California Nonprofit Corporation
The Laws of the Virtual Worlds
F. Gregory Lastowkat & Dan Hunterl
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction   .............................................................................................  3
A .  V irtual W  orlds  ...........................................................................   4
B. On the Real and the Virtual .......................................................  7
I.   A Virtual-World Primer .................................................................. 14
A .  W  riting  the  W orld  ....................................................................  14
B. Drawing the World .................................................................. 21
II.  V irtual Properties  ..........................................................................   29
A. The Existence of Property in Virtual Worlds ........................... 30
B. Early Conceptions of Virtual Property ..................................... 34
C. The Descriptive Account of Virtual Property .......................... 37
1.   Metaphysical Problems ....................................................  40
2.   Temporal Problems ........................................................... 42
D. The Normative Account of Virtual Property ............................ 43
1.   Utilitarian Theories of Virtual Property ............................ 44
2.   Lockean Theories of Virtual Property ............................... 46
3.   Personality Theories of Virtual Property ............................ 48
E. Ownership of Virtual Property ................................................ 50
Copyright © 2004 California Law Review, Inc. California Law Review, Inc. (CLR) is a California
nonprofit corporation. CLR and the authors are solely responsible for the content of their publications.
t   Associate, Dechert LLP, Philadelphia. Email: greglas@aya.yale.edu.
t   Robert F. Irwin IV Term Assistant Professor of Legal Studies, Wharton School, University of
Pennsylvania. Email: hunterd@wharton.upenn.edu. Both authors contributed equally to this Article,
and order of attribution was randomly determined. The authors wish to thank Jane Baron, Ted
Castronova, Julian Dibbell, Will Harvey, Elizabeth Hess (Yib), Orin Kerr, Carol Chase Lastowka,
Raph Koster, Tom Melcher, Jennifer Mnookin, David Post, Will Warner, Tim Wu, and Jon Zittrain for
comments and insight. The usual disclaimer applies.

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