80 B.U. L. Rev. 579 (2000)
Form over Function: Expanding the Transformative Use Test for Fair Use

handle is hein.journals/bulr80 and id is 595 raw text is: NOTES
FORM OVER FUNCTION: EXPANDING THE
TRANSFORMATIVE USE TEST FOR FAIR USE
JEREMY KUDON
INTRODUCTION   ................................................................................................ 580
I. COPYRIGHT LAW AND THE FAIR USE DEFENSE .................................... 584
A. Copyright Law: A Balance of Motivation and Exploitation ........ 584
B .  The  Fair  Use  D octrine  ................................................................. 587
II.  THE TRANSFORMATIVE USE TEST ........................................................ 589
A. The Compass Arrives: Toward a Fair Use Standard .................. 589
B. Questioning Leval's Transformative Use Test .............. 590
1. The Difference Between Productive Use and
Transform ative  U se  ................................................................ 590
2. Distinguishing a Transformative from a Derivative Work ..... 592
C. The Supreme Court Endorses the Transformative Use Test ......... 593
D. How Campbell Addresses Questions Previously Raised .............. 595
1. Differentiating Transformative Use from Productive Use ..... 595
2. Distinguishing a Derivative from a Transformative Work ..... 595
III. THE APPLICATION OF THE TRANSFORMATIVE USE TEST AFTER
C AM PBELL  ............................................................................................. 597
A. Campbell's Aftermath: A Caste System for Fair Use .................. 597
B. Case Studies of the Transformative Use Test ............................... 599
1. Ringgold v. Black Entertainment Television, Inc ................... 599
2. Infinity Broadcast Corp. v. Kirkwood .................................... 600
3. Castle Rock Entertainment, Inc. v. Carol Publishing
G roup,  Inc .............................................................................. 602
C. A Review of Transformative Use in the Courtroom ..................... 605
IV. IMPROVING THE TRANSFORMATIVE USE TEST: ADDING FUNCTION
TO  FO RM   ............................................................................................... 606
A. Nimmer's Definition and Application of Functional Analysis ...... 606
B. Applying a New Transformative Use Analysis ............................. 608
C. Derivative Works Under the Revised Transformative Use Test ...608
D. The Functional Use Test and Reproduction ................................. 609
C O N CLU SIO N  .................................................................................................... 6 11

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