71 Notre Dame L. Rev. 79 (1995-1996)
Authors, Editors, and Uncommon Carriers: Identifying the Speaker within the New Media

handle is hein.journals/tndl71 and id is 87 raw text is: Authors, Editors, and Uncommon Carriers: Identifying
the Speaker Within the New Media
Michael I. Meyerson*
I. INTRODUCTION ................................................... 79
II. THE FIRST AMENDMENT VALUE IN DISTRIBUTING IDEAS .........       81
A. Distinguishing Speakers and Distributors .....................  81
B.  Liberty  of  Circulation  .......................................  84
C.  Editorial Discretion  ........................................  89
III. A PAGE [TIRmER: THE CONSTITUTIONAL APPROACH FOR NEW
MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES ........................................... 93
A. The Limits of Analog9: Creation of an Intermediate Standard..  94
B.  Classifying  Interests ........................................  100
1. Return of the Luddites .............................. 101
2. Promoting and Protecting the Electronic
Marketplace of Ideas ................................ 104
IV. FREE SPEECH AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF IDEAS IN THE NEW
MEDIA .......................................................... 105
A. Multiplying Speakers by Regulating Distributors .............. 105
1. Recognizing Bottlenecks ............................. 106
2. Content Neutrality ................................... 109
3. Finding a Reasonable Fit ............................ 111
B. Unconstitutional Influences on Distributors .................. 112
1.  Direct State Action  ..................................  112
2. Distributor Liability and the Encouragement of
Collateral Censorship ................................ 116
V. CONCLUSION .................................................... 124
I. INTRODUCTION
Thomas Jefferson andJames Madison, it is safe to assume, never envi-
sioned multi-channel fiber optic digital networks carrying voice, video and
data at the speed of light. Nonetheless, the eighteenth century promise of
freedom of expression will still need to be fulfilled in the ever-changing
Information Age.
While the principles of the First Amendment are timeless, their appli-
cation has always varied with the introduction of new technology. As has
ofttimes been stated, Each method of communicating ideas is 'a law unto
*  Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law. BA., Hampshire College, 1976;
J.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1979. Support for this Article was provided by the University of
Baltimore School of Law Summer Research Stipend. I wish to thank Emily Greenberg, Will Tress
and the rest of the University of Baltimore Law School Library Staff for their invaluable
assistance.

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