38 McGeorge L. Rev. 815 (2007)
Female Refugees: Re-Victimized by the Material Support to Terrorism Bar

handle is hein.journals/mcglr38 and id is 835 raw text is: Comment

Female Refugees: Re-Victimized by the Material Support to
Terrorism Bar
Kara Beth Stein*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.   IN TRO D UCTIO N  ............................................................................................. 8 16
II. REFUGEE PROVISIONS OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT ..... 818
A. Defining Terms: Refugees and Asylum Seekers .................................... 818
B. Historic Development of Refugee Law .................................................. 819
C.   The  Refugee  Act of  1980 ........................................................................ 820
D. Terrorism Provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act .............. 821
1. Congressional Intent: Excluding Those Who Seek to Harm the
U nited  States  ................................................................................... 82 1
2.   The Result: Excluding the Victims of Terrorists ............................. 822
III. THE MATERIAL SUPPORT PROVISION UNJUSTIFIABLY DENIES FEMALE
REFUGEES ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES .......................................... 823
A. Application of the Material Support Provision Has a Grave Impact
on  W om en  .............................................................................................. 823
1.   Women Coerced to Provide Domestic Services Are Denied
A dm ission  ........................................................................................ 823
2.   Women Coerced By Sexual Assault or Threat of Sexual
Assault Are Denied Admission ........................................................ 824
a.   Rape: A Gender-Based Use of Force ....................................... 824
b.   Rape: A Weapon of Intimidation .............................................. 825
IV. APPLICATION OF THE MATERIAL SUPPORT PROVISION CONTRAVENES
CONGRESSIONAL INTENT AND VIOLATES INTERNATIONAL LAW ................ 827
V. RECOGNITION OF A DURESS EXCEPTION TO THE MATERIAL SUPPORT
P R O V ISIO N   .................................................................................................... 829
A. Fraud Prevention in the Refugee Resettlement Context ........................ 830
* J.D. candidate, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law, to be conferred 2008; B.A. in
Political Science with Spanish Minor, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2003. I would
like to extend my deepest thanks to my amazing parents, Jeff and Pam Stein; my sister, Julia Stein; my
grandparents, Gladys Burton, Sol and Rosanna Stein, and Willard and Dee Burton; and my boyfriend, Jason
Conaway. Each has not only encouraged me to pursue my academic goals, but has also given me continuous
emotional support. Thanks also to my faculty advisors, Professors Omar Dajani and Ruth Jones, who provided
me with invaluable feedback throughout the writing process.

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