48 J. Broad. & Elec. Media 335 (2004)
Violent Virtual Video Games and Hostile Thoughts

handle is hein.journals/jbem48 and id is 345 raw text is: Violent Virtual Video Games and
Hostile Thoughts
Ron Tamborini, Matthew S. Eastin, Paul Skalski,
Kenneth Lachlan, Thomas A. Fediuk, and Robert Brady
A violent virtual-reality (VR) video game's short-term impact on telepres-
ence and hostility was studied. Five weeks before a lab experiment,
participants completed a questionnaire measuring prior violent video
game use and trait aggression. Participants were randomly assigned to
play a VR violent video game, play a standard violent video game, observe
a violent video game, or observe a non-violent video game. Following
exposure, measures of telepresence experienced, hostile thoughts, and
aggressive acts were obtained. Findings are consistent with predictions
that personal variables (prior video game use) and situational variables
(violent media exposure) influence telepresence experienced in media
environments and promote hostile thoughts. No findings substantiate
predictions that telepresence mediates personal or situational variables'
influence on aggression.
The enormous controversy surrounding violent video games has been fueled by
conflicting claims about the nature of their content and the relationship between
game use and hostility. Spurred by tragedies like those at Columbine High School,
concern has led scholars, social critics, game manufacturers, and media profession-
Ron Tamborini (Ph.D., Indiana University) is an Associate Professor of Communication at Michigan State
University. His research interests include media effects of new communication technology.
Matthew S. Eastin (Ph.D., Michigan State University) is an Assistant Professor in the School of Communi-
cation at Ohio State University. His research interests include the uses and effects of media, with an emphasis
on new media.
Paul Skalski (M.A., Cleveland State University) is a doctoral candidate at Michigan State University and an
Instructor in the Department of Communication at the University of Minnesota-Duluth. His research
interests include media effects and new media technologies.
Kenneth Lachlan (Ph.D., Michigan State University) is an Assistant Professor in the Communication
Department at Boston College. His research interests include the uses and effects of media.
Thomas A. Fediuk (M.A., Illinois State University) is a doctoral candidate at Michigan State University and
an Instructor in the Department of Communication at the University of Minnesota-Duluth. His research
interests include communication campaigns and public relations.
Robert Brady (M.A., State University of New York at Buffalo) is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Communication at Michigan State University. His research interests include medical education, new media,
and medical simulation.
V 2004 Broadcast Education Association  Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 48(3), 2004, pp. 335-357
335

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