14 Harv. Latino L. Rev. 337 (2011)
Are Your Papers in Order: Racial Profiling, Vigilantes, and America's Toughest Sheriff; Romero, Mary

handle is hein.journals/hllr14 and id is 341 raw text is: ARE YOUR PAPERS IN ORDER?:
Mary Romero*
Recent anti-immigrant legislation proposed in Arizona suggests strong
nativism sentiment demanding more draconian measures against non-citi-
zens residing illegally in the United States, particularly towards immigrants
of color.' The use of military language in describing immigration raids con-
ducted by homeland security,2 along with a growing number of nativist ex-
tremist groups,' set the backdrop for some anti-immigrant groups to claim
the existence of a Mexican invasion in the United States.4 Numerous immi-
gration scholars have commented on the significance of costumes and props
used by the Minutemen that reinforce the existence of an invasion-military
fatigues, binoculars, bulletproof vests, walkie-talkies, and guns.5 Likewise,
the use of federal agents armed with rifles and wearing bulletproof vests to
raid homes, work sites, and shopping malls also suggests that immigration is
a threat to national security. Furthermore, creating the visible barrier of a
wall between Mexico and the United States is an extremely significant polit-
ical symbol. The large number of deportations conducted in recent years
creates an economic, political, and social environment that legitimizes
* Professor and Faculty Head of Justice and Social Inquiry, School of Social Transforma-
tion, Arizona State University. Mary Romero holds a Ph.D. from the University of Colorado in
See 2010 Ariz. Sess. Laws 113.
2See generally U.S. IMMIGR. & CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT (Jan. 21, 2011), http://www.ice.
gov/index.htm (describing ICE National Fugitive Operations Campaign, Operation Return to
Sender, and Operation Endgame).
See, e.g., WE HATE GRINGOs, http://www.WeHateGringos.com (last visited August 27,
2007) (on file with author) (a popular website which argued that the United States was being
invaded by Mexico); see also Heidi Beirich et al., S. Poverty L. Ctr., The Nativists: Profiles of
20 Anti-Immigrant Leaders, 129 INTELLIGENCE REP. (2008), available at http://www.splcenter.
org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2008/spring/the-nativists?page= 0,4
(quoting Michelle Dallacroce's discussion of a Mexican invasion).
See Mary Romero, Go After the Women: Mothers Against Illegal Aliens' Campaign
Against Mexican Immigrant Women and Their Children, 83 IND. L.J. 1355, 1387-88 (2008).
'See generally, Leo R. Chavez, Spectacle in the Desert: The Minuteman Project on the
US-Mexico Border, in GLOBAL VIGILANTES 25 (David Pratten & Atreyee Sen eds., 2008);

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