48 Syracuse L. Rev. 227 (1998)
Ex Post Facto Laws, Bills of Attainder, and the Definition of Punishment: On DOMA, the Hawaii Amendment, and Federal Constitutional Constraints

handle is hein.journals/syrlr48 and id is 251 raw text is: EX POST FACTO LAWS, BILLS OF ATTAINDER,
AND THE DEFINITION OF PUNISHMENT: ON
DOMA, THE HAWAII AMENDMENT, AND
FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS
Mark Strasser'
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION    ...................................................................................... 227
I. Ex POST FACTO LAWS ................................................................. 229
A. The Constitutional Prohibition ............................................ 229
B. Ex Post Facto Laws ............................................................. 230
II. BILLS OF ATTAINDER ................................................................. 238
A. Historical Background ......................................................... 238
B. What Is a Bill of Attainder? ................................................. 240
C. The Purposes of the Clause ................................................. 246
D.  Specifi city  ............................................................................ 247
III. DOMA AND THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT ............................... 251
A .  D OAM   .................................................................................. 251
B. Proposed Hawaii Amendment .............................................. 257
CONCLUSION    ......................................................................................... 258
INTRODUCTION
During the summer of 1996, Congress passed and the President
signed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) which denied recognition
of same-sex marriages for federal purposes and which purportedly gave
each state the right not to recognize such marriages even if validly
celebrated in another state.' A proposed amendment to the Hawaii
t Associate Professor of Law, Capital University Law School. B.A., Harvard Univer-
sity, Ph.D., University of Chicago, J.D., Stanford University.
1. Pub. L. No. 104-99, 110 Stat. 2419 (1996).
In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or any ruling, regulation, or
interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United
States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one

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