8 Rich. J. Global L. & Bus. 287 (2008-2009)
Of Oceans, Islands, and Inland Water - How Much Room for Exceptions and Limitations under the Three-Step Test

handle is hein.journals/rjnglbs8 and id is 301 raw text is: OF OCEANS, ISLANDS, AND INLAND WATER -
HOW MUCH ROOM FOR EXCEPTIONS AND
LIMITATIONS UNDER THE THREE-STEP TEST?
Annette Kur*
OUTLINE
I.  INTRODUCTION      .......................................  288
II. DEFINITIONS AND SYSTEMATIC CONSIDERA-
TIO N S  ... .............................................  289
1.  What is  it all about?  ................................  289
2.  Term inology  ........................................  290
3. Islands in an ocean of protection, or vice versa? ..... 293
III. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS IN COMMON LAW
AND CIVIL LAW SYSTEMS (OVERVIEW) ............. 295
1.  General remarks  ....................................  295
2. Fair use vs. closed catalogues ...................... 296
3. All or nothing vs. remuneration rights ............. 299
IV. LIMITATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
(OVERVIEW    ) ...........................................  302
1.  The Berne  Convention  ...............................  302
2. TRIPS; WCT, WPPT ................................ 303
3. The Rome Convention ............................... 304
4. Industrial Property: The Paris Convention ........... 304
V. MORE PARTICULAR ON THE THREE-STEP TEST ... 305
1. How the test took centre-stage ....................... 305
2. Provenance of the three-step test ..................... 307
3. The three-step test as embedded in TRIPS ........... 308
a) The wording of the provisions compared with
each  other .......................................  308
b) The TRIPS provisions compared with Article 9.2
Berne  Convention  ...............................  310
4. The three-step test in the panel reports .............. 311
a)  General remarks   ................................  311
* This paper has been prepared in the framework of the Intellectual Property in
Transition Project (IPT). The project was initiated in 2001 with the aim to inves-
tigate from a legal viewpoint how an effective and ethically acceptable IP system
should be constructed in order to offer a balanced instrument for the 21st century.
The project's research results are intended to be published in a separate publica-
tion (A Kur & M. Levin [eds.], IP in Transition, forthcoming 2009). Many thanks
to Graeme Dinwoodie and Martin Senftleben, who have provided input to a previ-
ous version of this paper. Of course, all mistakes remain to be entirely mine.

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