21 J. Land Resources & Envtl. L. 549 (2001)
Patterns of Collaboration in Public Land Issues; Daniels, Steven

handle is hein.journals/lrel21 and id is 561 raw text is: Patterns of Collaboration in Public Land Issues

Steven Daniels*
I. INTRODUCTION
Three different frameworks are useful in evaluating public participation
in the creation of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Monument).
First is the set of core values that the International Association for Public
Participation (IAPP) has developed. Second are concepts from social psychology
known as procedural justice. The third is a more general notion referred to as
decision space. While each of these evaluative frames is distinct, they collectively
provide an interesting perspective on what public participation could realistically
be expected to accomplish in the planning of the Monument.
II. THREE FRAMEWORKS
A. IAPP Core Values
The IAPP has defined four core values that should be part of any public
participation system.' The first core value is that the public should have input into
decisions that affect their daily lives. The second important concept is that public
participation includes an implicit promise that their contributed effort will in fact
influence the outcome. The third is that the public participation process must
facilitate communication among all interested parties and also allow them to self-
define their roles in the process. Fourth, the process communicates back to the
participants how their input affected the final decision. In summary, it
communicates to the participants the information they need to participate in a
meaningful way.
Public participation in the establishment of the Monument did not
conform particularly well to the IAPP core values. That is not necessarily an
indictment of this particular planning exercise, because most federally-directed
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)2 processes do not conform well to
these criteria. In this instance, the process had already been determined by NEPA,
by the Council on Environmental Quality, case law, agency decisions and
* Director of the Western Rural Development Center. He is a professor in the Department of
Sociology, Social Work, and Anthropology and the Department of Forest Resources at Utah State University.
He has a B.A. from Whitman College and M.S. and Ph.D. from Duke University.
U.S. Dept. of Energy, Core Values Guide Practice of Public Participation
<http://www.em.doe.gov/emprog/sprOO6.htn-> (last updated May 31, 2000).
2 42 U.S.C. §§ 4321-4370 (1994).

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