11 J. Pat. Off. Soc'y 358 (1929)
Colonial Monopolies and Patents; Federico, P. J.

handle is hein.journals/jpatos11 and id is 382 raw text is: JOURNAL OF THE PATENT OFFICE SOCIETY.

COLONIAL MONOPOLIES AND PATENTS
By P. J. FEDERICO, Div. 43
There was, from the beginning of the colonization of
the American colonies, some industrial life, although the
colonies were mainly agricultural. Even up to the time
of the Revolutionary War less than ten percent of the
population was engaged in manufacturing of any kind
and these manufacturers were mostly of the essentials
of life. The develdpment of such industries as these
colonies had was not entirely spontaneous. The colonial
legislatures found it necessary to protect, and to induce
the establishment of new' industries. This was done by
special legislation, designed primarily not to foster new
inventions, but to encourage the introduction of manu-
factures and processes from other countries, to assist
manufactures already established, to facilitate inspec-
tion, or to control articles of manufacture. Monopolies
were considered proper whenever they caused the crea-
tion of a useful enterprise 'which otherwise would be
neglected. These monopolies would be considered very
unjust today but in colonial times the small populations,
the remoteness of the colonies from other countries, the
undeveloped state of the country and the limited markets
justified the practice..
In addition to the grant of monopolies other means
were used to encourage new industries, among the nmost
prominent being the granting of bounties, premiums and
subsidies. Bounties, the most common, were given to
promote abundant production. Premiums, designed -to
encourage skill, were usually in the, form of money prizes
donated by individuals and societies as well as by the
colonial governments. Occasionally the public authori-
ties gave definite financial aid to persons proposing to
establish new industries. Other forms of encouragement
took the shape of land grants, loans, and even permission
to hold lotteries to raise money. In a few cases laws
were passed to force some types of production. In con-

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