45 J. Legal Educ. 313 (1995)
What Lawyers Know: Lawyering Expertise, Cognitive Science, and the Functions of Theory

handle is hein.journals/jled45 and id is 323 raw text is: What Lawyers Know:
Lawyering Expertise, Cognitive
Science, and the Functions of Theory
Gary L. Blasi
I.   Introduction  .......................................................................................... 314
I.  Expertise at What? Lawyering as Problem-Solving .............................. 323
A. Prototypical Lawyering in Cultural Context
B. Lawyering as a Collection of Competencies
C. Clinical Legal Education and Lawyering as Problem-Solving
I.  The Expert as Decision-Maker and Problem-Solver: Decision
Theory and Cognitive Science .............................................................. 329
IV. A Closer Look at the Cognitive Science Paradigm:
Heuristics, Schemas, and Mental Models ............................................ 332
A. Problem-Solving as Heuristic Search
B. Problem-Solving as Pattern Recognition and Retrieval
C. Schemas, Scripts, and Frames
D. Mental Models and Situation Models
V.    The Empirical Evidence for the Cognitive Science Paradigm:
Experts and Novices Across Problem-Solving Domains ...................... 342
A. Perception and Recall of Patterns and Deep Structures
B. Speed of Problem-Solving
C. Forward/Backward Reasoning
D. Analogical Problem-Solving and the Direct Injection
of Schemas and Mental Models
E. Caveat: The Costs of Expertise
Gary L Blasi is Acting Professor of Law at the University of California, Los Angeles. An early draft
of this essay was presented at the Third International Conference on Lawyers and Lawyering at
Lake Windermere, England, inJuly 1993.
I am grateful to colleagues at Lake Windermere, especially Avrom Sher, and to many other
friends and colleagues at the UCLA School of Law, whose criticism and support have been
essential to this undertaking, including- Rick Abel, Alison Anderson, Peter Arenella, Joel Han-
dler, Dan Lowenstein, Carrie MenkeI-Meadow, Steve Munzer, Lucie White, and Steve Yeazell.
David Binder and Al Moore have made more contributions to this project than I can adequately
acknowledge. The comments of the anonymous referees for the Journal of Legal Education were
especially helpful. I gratefully acknowledge the expert research assistance provided by Susan
Ortmeyer, Michael Eflinger, Lisa Fitzpatrick, and Debra Vella, and the financial assistance
provided by the UCLA Academic Senate and the UCLA School of Law Dean's Fund.

Journal of Legal Education, Volume 45, Number 3 (September 1995)

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