48 J. Crim. L. Criminology & Police Sci. 570 (1957-1958)
Police Science Technical Abstracts and Notes

handle is hein.journals/jclc48 and id is 580 raw text is: STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES REGARDING POLYGRAPH
(LIE-DETECTOR) EXAMINATIONS
(Adopted by the American Academy of Polygraph
Examiners at its Fourth Annual Meeting in Wash-
ington, D. C. on September 5-6, 1957.)

We, the members of the American Academy of
Polygraph Examiners, in recognition of the fact
that the instruments and techniques utilized by
polygraph examiners are capable of tremendous
contributions in any area where the determination
of the veracity of a human being is important, and
In recognition of the increasing esteem in which
the iesults of polygraph tests are held, and
In recognition of the increasing reliance which
is placed upon the results of polygraph examina-
tions by law enforcement officials, businessmen,
and government agencies, and
In recognition of the potential source of incal-
culable harm which exists when the instrument is
used by untrained or unscrupulous persons, present
this STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES, not only
for the guidance of our membership, but for all
persons who use the polygraph or who depend on
its results.
I. THE INSTRUMENT
We believe that adequate results can be obtained
only with an adequate instrument. We believe that
minimum standards require an instrument which
records permanently the subject's cardio-vascular
and respiratory patterns. We recognize the desir-
ability of utilizing instruments which record addi-
tional physiological changes pertinent to the
detection of deception. We recognize the desir-
abilitv and the likelihood of research in the field
and retain an open mind toward developments
which may increase the reliability and validity of
our results.
II. THE EXAMINER
A. Qualifications: We recognize that the poly-
graph examiner must be a skilled interrogator and
formally trained in the use of the instrument and
the techniques.
B. Unprofessional Conduct: The following are
considered to be examples of unprofessional con-
duct on the part of the examiner:
1. Any verbal or advertised claim of perfection.

No reputable examiner would make such a claim,
knowing in the first place that all persons cannot
be successfully tested with the polygraph, and
knowing that perfection has never been achieved
in any process where human beings are involved.
2. Any verbal or advertised claim of professional
qualifications which the person has not attained.
3. Any verbal or advertised claim of secret
instruments or methods. Ethical examiners are
eager to advance the status of their profession by
the widest possible dissemination of their tech-
niques.
4. Any use of the polygraph for the sole purpose
of inducing confessions and thus disregarding the
equally important function of the polygraph in
exonerating the innocent.
5. Any conduct, attitude, dress, trick, or device
in the administration of a polygraph examination
which would tend to induce a false confession.
6. Any report of an examination which is con-
trary to the professional opinion of the examiner.
7. Any public demonstrations which include
mock tests. We see no harm in useful demonstra-
tions of the mechanical operation of the instrument
where no question of deception is involved.
III. THE EXAMINATION
A. Test Questions: We believe that the questions
asked during a polygraph examination should be
pertinent to the matter under investigation and
that a polygraph examination should not be per-
mitted to degenerate into an attempt to find some-
thing wrong with the subject. The areas covered
by the questions are determined by the matter
under investigation, but the actual wording of the
questions must be left to the discretion of the
examiner.
B. Persons Tested: We believe there should be
an evidential link between the matter under
investigation and the persons examined. Such a
requirement does not apply to cases where routine
pre-employment or screening examinations are
conducted. In cases where the parties to an issue

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