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9 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 285 (1977-1978)
North v. Russell and Ludwig v. Massachusetts: Unhappy Solutions to the Problems of Two-Tier Court Systems

handle is hein.journals/colhr9 and id is 289 raw text is: North v. Russell
and Ludwig v. Massachusetts:
Unhappy Solutions to the
Problems of Two-Tier Court Systems
Edward Soto*
In North v. Russell,' handed down on June 28, 1976, the Supreme
Court upheld Kentucky's two-tier court system against claims that it
abridged federal due process and equal protection rights.2 Two days later,
in Ludwig v. Massachusetts,3 the Court upheld a similar Massachusetts trial
system in a case concerning unconstitutional burdens on due process,
abridgement of the right to a trial by jury, and violation of the Double
Jeopardy Clause.4 These cases will have far reaching effects on criminal
procedure in the United States since they serve to approve many two-tier
court systems used in other states,5 several of which have recently re-
* Managing Editor, Columbia Human Rights Law Review.
1. 427 U.S. 328 (1976).
2. Id. at 329.
3. 427 U.S. 618 (1976).
4. Id. at 620.
5. Alabama: CONST. art. 1, § 6 (1960); CODE OF ALA. tit. 13A, S 4-101, -106, -109,
-111(b)(c) (Supp. 1975); id. tit. 15, §§ 321, 358, 363 (1959). Arizona: CONST. art. 2, § 24;
ARiz. REV. STAT. ANN. § 22-320, 22-371, 22-371.01, 22-372, 22-373, 22-373.01, 22-374,
22-425 (1975). Arkansas: ARK. STAT. ANN. § 22-709, 22-737 (1962); id. § 40-114 to -116
(1964). Colorado: COL. R. OF CIUM. P. 37(f)(g) (1973). Indiana: IND. STAT. ANN. CODE ED.
35-1-13-3 (1975). Kansas: KAN. STAT. ANN. S 22-3609 (Supp. 1975); id. S 22-3610 (1974).
Kentucky: KEN. REV. STAT. S 23-032, 25.010, 25.014, 25.035 (1970): KEN. R. OF CRIM. P.
12.02, 12.06 (1970). Maine: CONST. art. I, § 6, 7; ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 4, § 152 (Supp.
1976-77); id. S 165 (1964); ME. DIST. CT. CRIM. R. 23, 37, 39, 40 (1976). Massachusetts:
ANN. LAWS OF MASS. ch. 218, § 26 (1974); id. ch. 278, S 18, 28B (Supp. 1975). Michigan:
CONST. art. 1, § 20 (1963); MicH. COMP. LAWs ANN. S 774.34 (1968); GEN. CT. R. 701.10
(1963). Minnesota: MINN. STAT. ANN. S 484.63 (Supp. 1976-77). Mississippi: MISS. CODE
ANN. § 99-35-1 (1972). Missouri: Mo. SUP. CT. R. OF CRIM. P. 22.16 (8th ed. 1977). Mon-
tana: REv. CODE OF MONT. 1947 ANN. S 95-2009 (Supp. 1969). Nebraska: REv. STAT. OF

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