46 Clev. St. L. Rev. 211 (1998)
Indians' Chief Problem: Chief Wahoo as State Sponsored Discrimination and a Disparaging Mark, The; Guggenheim, Jack Achiezer

handle is hein.journals/clevslr46 and id is 221 raw text is: THE INDIANS' CHIEF PROBLEM: CHIEF WAHOO AS
STATE SPONSORED DISCRIMINATION AND A
DISPARAGING MARK
JACK ACHIEZER GUGGENHEIM1
I.  INTRODUCTION  .................................... 212
II.  THE CLEVELAND INDIANS  ............................ 213
A. History of the Cleveland Indians .................. 213
B.  History of Chief Wahoo  ......................... 214
Iit. CHIEF WAHOO AS STATE SPONSORED DISCRIMINATION ....... 215
A. Chief Wahoo as State Action ..................... 215
B. Equal Protection Under the Fourteenth
Amendment  .................................. 221
C. Chief Wahoo as a Violation of the Fourteenth
Amendment  .................................. 222
D. Chief Wahoo as Racist Speech .................... 223
1. Theory of First Amendment Prohibiting
Government Endorsed Racist Speech ......... 224
2. The Theory as Applied to Chief Wahoo ....... 225
E. Similar Prior Challenge Failed ................... 226
IV. CHALLENGING THE CHIEF WAHOO TRADEMARK ............ 226
A.  Trademark Protection  .......................... 227
B. Disparaging and Scandalous ................. 228
1. Standard and Case Law for Disparaging ... . 229
2. Standard and Case Law for Scandalous . .... 231
C. Evidence that Chief Wahoo Refers to Native
Americans and is Disparaging and Scandalous ...... 232
D. Evidence that Chief Wahoo is not Disparaging
or Scandalous  ................................. 233
E. Challenge to the Redskins Trademark .............. 234
V .  CONCLUSION  ..................................... 237
1B.A., Cum Laude, Yeshiva University, 1993; J.D., with honors, Columbia
University, 1996. COA, with honors, Parker School of International and Comparative
Law, 1996. Associate, Sidley & Austin. This article expresses only the views of the author.
This article is written with thanks to Marilyn, David and Rachel, who have made me
feel part of the home team.

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