93 Cal. L. Rev. 1 (2005)
Judicial Independence in International Tribunals

handle is hein.journals/calr93 and id is 13 raw text is: California Law Review
VOL. 93                             JANUARY 2005                                No. 1
Copyright © 2005 by California Law Review, Inc.
Judicial Independence in
International Tribunals
Eric A. Posnert and John C. Yoot
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction  .............................................................................................  3
I.   Background on International Dispute Resolution ............................ 8
II. Independence and the Role of International Tribunals ..................... 12
A. Independence in the Domestic and International Spheres ....... 12
B. Why States Use International Tribunals ..................................... 14
1. Information Disclosure in Treaty Disputes ........................... 15
2. Information Disclosure in Customary International Law
D isputes .............................................................................  18
3. The Dispute Resolution Mechanism ..................................... 20
C. The Design of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms ....................... 22
1. The Single Arbitrator ........................................................... 22
2. Three (or More) Arbitrators ................................................  23
3. From Arbitration to Courts .................................................. 24
4. Measuring Tribunal Independence ....................................... 26
D. Measurements of Effectiveness ................................................ 27
Copyright © 2005 California Law Review, Inc. California Law Review, Inc. (CLR) is a California
nonprofit corporation. CLR and the authors are solely responsible for the content of their publications.
f   Kirkland & Ellis Professor of Law, University of Chicago.
:   Professor of Law, School of Law, University of California, Berkeley (Boalt Hall). Thanks to
Marc Busch, Tom Ginsburg, Richard McAdams, Andrew Guzman, Kal Raustiala, Richard Steinberg,
Duncan Snidal, and participants at a workshop at the University of Virginia Law School for comments,
and to Dragana Darnjanovic, Miguel de Figueiredo, Raul Perez Johnston, Bill Martin, Eric Truett, and
Will Trachman for research assistance. Professor Posner thanks the Russell Baker Scholars Fund and
Professor Yoo thanks the Boalt Hall Fund for financial support.

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